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The physiology of glucagon-like peptide 1.
  • J. Holst
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Physiological reviews
  • 1 October 2007
TLDR
The main actions of GLP-1 are to stimulate insulin secretion and to inhibit glucagon secretion, thereby contributing to limit postprandial glucose excursions and acts as an enterogastrone and part of the "ileal brake" mechanism. Expand
Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.
TLDR
In mild type-2 diabetes, GLP-1 [7-36 amide], in contrast to GIP, retains much of its insulinotropic activity and lowers glucagon concentrations. Expand
Both Subcutaneously and Intravenously Administered Glucagon-Like Peptide I Are Rapidly Degraded From the NH2-Terminus in Type II Diabetic Patients and in Healthy Subjects
To fate of exogenous glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I)(7–36) amide was studied in nondiabetic and type II diabetic subjects using a combination of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), specificExpand
Degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 by human plasma in vitro yields an N-terminally truncated peptide that is a major endogenous metabolite in vivo.
TLDR
It is suggested that dipeptidyl peptidase-IV is the primary mechanism for GLP-1 degradation in human plasma in vitro and may have a role in inactivating the peptide in vivo. Expand
Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study
TLDR
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) could be a new treatment for type 2 diabetes, though further investigation of the long-term effects of this peptide hormone is needed. Expand
Distribution of glucagon-like peptide-1 and other preproglucagon-derived peptides in the rat hypothalamus and brainstem
TLDR
Observations substantiate that glucagon-like peptide-1 neurons of the solitary tract constitute a distinct non-catecholaminergic cell group which projects to many targets, one of which is the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Expand
Reduced postprandial concentrations of intact biologically active glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetic patients.
TLDR
The measurement of intact incretin hormones revealed that total as well as intact GIP responses were minimally decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas the late intact GLP-1 response was strongly reduced, supporting the hypothesis that an impaired function of GLp-1 as a transmitter in the enteroinsular axis contributes to the inappropriate insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic patients. Expand
Role of incretin hormones in the regulation of insulin secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic humans.
  • J. Holst, J. Gromada
  • Medicine
  • American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and…
  • 1 August 2004
TLDR
Strong support for the hypothesis that the incretin defect plays an important role in the insulin deficiency of patients is provided by the finding that administration of excess GLP-1 to patients may completely restore the glucose-induced insulin secretion as well as the beta-cells' sensitivity to glucose. Expand
Lower blood glucose, hyperglucagonemia, and pancreatic α cell hyperplasia in glucagon receptor knockout mice
TLDR
The data indicate that glucagon is essential for maintenance of normal glycemia and postnatal regulation of islet and α and δ cell numbers and the lean phenotype of Gcgr−/− mice suggests glucagon action may be involved in the regulation of whole body composition. Expand
Inhibition of gastric inhibitory polypeptide signaling prevents obesity
TLDR
GIP directly links overnutrition to obesity and it is a potential target for anti-obesity drugs. Expand
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