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Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences.
The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity. Expand
Effects of Aging, Sex, and Physical Training on Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
A lower stroke volume, heart rate, and arteriovenous oxygen difference at maximal exercise all contribute to the age-related decline in V˙o2max. Expand
Adaptations of skeletal muscle to exercise: rapid increase in the transcriptional coactivator PGC‐1
It is suggested that increases in PGC‐1, NRF‐ 1, andNRF‐2 represent key regulatory components of the stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by exercise and that P GC‐1 mediates the coordinated increases in GLUT4 and mitochondria. Expand
Biochemical adaptations in muscle. Effects of exercise on mitochondrial oxygen uptake and respiratory enzyme activity in skeletal muscle.
  • J. Holloszy
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of biological chemistry
  • 10 May 1967
The increase in electron transport capacity was associated with a concomitant rise in the capacity to produce adenosine triphosphate, which may partially account for the increase in aerobic work capacity that occurs with regularly performed, prolonged exercise. Expand
Exercise-induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis Begins before the Increase in Muscle PGC-1α Expression*
It appears that activation of PGC-1α may mediate the initial phase of the exercise-induced adaptive increase in muscle mitochondria, whereas the subsequent increase in P GC-1 α protein sustains and enhances the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. Expand
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase increases mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle.
The results suggest that chronic AMPK activation may mediate the effects of muscle contraction on some, but not all, biochemical adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise training. Expand
Effects of Exercise Training on Frailty in Community‐Dwelling Older Adults: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intensive exercise training on measures of physical frailty in older community‐dwelling men and women. Expand
Raising Ca2+ in L6 myotubes mimics effects of exercise on mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle
The results show that the adaptive response of L6 myotubes to an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ mimics the stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by exercise, which supports the hypothesis that an increases in cytOSolic Ca1+ is one of the signals that mediate increased mitochondrialBiogenesis in muscle. Expand
Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue.
Fatigue was postponed by carbohydrate feeding in 7 of the 10 subjects and appeared to be mediated by prevention of hypoglycemia in only two subjects. Expand
Histochemical and enzymatic comparison of the gastrocnemius muscle of young and elderly men and women.
Structural and biochemical changes probably contribute to the decreases in muscle mass, strength, and endurance often observed in healthy but sedentary older men and women. Expand