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Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences.
The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity.
Adaptations of skeletal muscle to exercise: rapid increase in the transcriptional coactivator PGC‐1
It is suggested that increases in PGC‐1, NRF‐ 1, andNRF‐2 represent key regulatory components of the stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by exercise and that P GC‐1 mediates the coordinated increases in GLUT4 and mitochondria.
Biochemical adaptations in muscle. Effects of exercise on mitochondrial oxygen uptake and respiratory enzyme activity in skeletal muscle.
- J. Holloszy
- BiologyThe Journal of biological chemistry
- 10 May 1967
The increase in electron transport capacity was associated with a concomitant rise in the capacity to produce adenosine triphosphate, which may partially account for the increase in aerobic work capacity that occurs with regularly performed, prolonged exercise.
Effects of Aging, Sex, and Physical Training on Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
A lower stroke volume, heart rate, and arteriovenous oxygen difference at maximal exercise all contribute to the age-related decline in V˙o2max.
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase increases mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle.
- W. Winder, B. Holmes, D. S. Rubink, E. B. Jensen, M. Chen, J. Holloszy
- BiologyJournal of applied physiology
- 1 June 2000
The results suggest that chronic AMPK activation may mediate the effects of muscle contraction on some, but not all, biochemical adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise training.
Exercise-induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis Begins before the Increase in Muscle PGC-1α Expression*
- D. Wright, Dong‐Ho Han, P. García-Rovés, P. Geiger, T. Jones, J. Holloszy
- BiologyJournal of Biological Chemistry
- 5 January 2007
It appears that activation of PGC-1α may mediate the initial phase of the exercise-induced adaptive increase in muscle mitochondria, whereas the subsequent increase in P GC-1 α protein sustains and enhances the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis.
Effects of Exercise Training on Frailty in Community‐Dwelling Older Adults: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial
- E. Binder, K. Schechtman, J. Holloszy
- Education, MedicineJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
- 1 December 2002
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intensive exercise training on measures of physical frailty in older community‐dwelling men and women.
Histochemical and enzymatic comparison of the gastrocnemius muscle of young and elderly men and women.
Structural and biochemical changes probably contribute to the decreases in muscle mass, strength, and endurance often observed in healthy but sedentary older men and women.
Muscle triglyceride utilization during exercise: effect of training.
- B. Hurley, P. M. Nemeth, W. Martin, J. Hagberg, G. Dalsky, J. Holloszy
- MedicineJournal of applied physiology
- 1 February 1986
The results suggest that the greater utilization of FFA in the trained state is fueled by increased lipolysis of muscle triglyceride, suggesting reduced availability of plasma FFA.
Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue.
- E. Coyle, J. Hagberg, B. Hurley, W. Martin, A. Ehsani, J. Holloszy
- MedicineJournal of applied physiology: respiratory…
- 1 July 1983
Fatigue was postponed by carbohydrate feeding in 7 of the 10 subjects and appeared to be mediated by prevention of hypoglycemia in only two subjects.