The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster.
The current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying Drosophila defense reactions together with strategies evolved by pathogens to evade them are reviewed.
The immune response of Drosophila
- J. Hoffmann
- 6 November 2003
Analysis of this defence by molecular genetics has now provided a global picture of the mechanisms by which this insect senses infection, discriminates between various classes of microorganisms and induces the production of effector molecules, among which antimicrobial peptides are prominent.
The Jak-STAT signaling pathway is required but not sufficient for the antiviral response of drosophila
Results indicate that in addition to Toll and Imd, a third, evolutionary conserved innate immunity pathway functions in drosophila and counters viral infection.
Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity.
In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity.
The Drosophila systemic immune response: sensing and signalling during bacterial and fungal infections
The striking parallels between the adult fly response and mammalian innate immune defences described below point to a common ancestry and validate the relevance of the fly defence as a paradigm for innate immunity.
Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms.
- B. Lemaître, J. Reichhart, J. Hoffmann
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 23 December 1997
It is demonstrated that Drosophila that are naturally infected by entomopathogenic fungi exhibit an adapted response by producing only peptides with antifungal activities, mediated through the selective activation of the Toll pathway.
Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein
The mutation semmelweis (seml) inactivates the gene encoding a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA), indicating the existence of a distinct recognition system for fungi to activate the Toll pathway.
Drosophila innate immunity: an evolutionary perspective
Recent evidence indicates that recognition of infectious nonself agents results from interactions between microbial wall components and extracellular pattern recognition proteins, and evolutionary perspectives on the antimicrobial defenses of Drosophila are discussed.
Immunity-Related Genes and Gene Families in Anopheles gambiae
242 Anopheles gambiae genes from 18 gene families implicated in innate immunity are identified and marked diversification relative to Drosophila melanogaster is detected, confirming that sequence diversification is accompanied by specific responses to different immune challenges.
The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein
A mutation in a gene coding for a putative transmembrane protein, PGRP-LC, which reduces survival to Gram-negative sepsis but has no effect on the response to gram-positive bacteria or natural fungal infections is reported.