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Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin.
- N. Friedman, A. Miyake, S. Young, J. Defries, R. Corley, J. Hewitt
- Psychology, BiologyJournal of experimental psychology. General
- 1 May 2008
A multivariate twin study of 3 executive functions (inhibiting dominant responses, updating working memory representations, and shifting between task sets), measured as latent variables, examined why people vary in these executive control abilities and why they are correlated but separable from a behavioral genetic perspective.
Not All Executive Functions Are Related to Intelligence
- N. Friedman, A. Miyake, R. Corley, S. Young, J. Defries, J. Hewitt
- PsychologyPsychological science
- 1 February 2006
Examination of the relations of fluid and crystallized intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IQ to three separable EFs in young adults indicates that intelligence measures differentially relate to these three EFs, suggesting that current intelligence measures do not equally assess a wide range of executive control abilities likely required for many “intelligent” behaviors.
Association studies of up to 1.2 million individuals yield new insights into the genetic etiology of tobacco and alcohol use
Evidence is reported for the involvement of many systems in tobacco and alcohol use, including genes involved in nicotinic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which provide a solid starting point to evaluate the effects of these loci in model organisms and more precise substance use measures.
Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development.
- L. Eaves, J. Silberg, J. Hewitt
- PsychologyJournal of child psychology and psychiatry, and…
- 1 November 1997
A widespread influence of genetic factors on risk to adolescent psychopathology is supported and suggests that the contribution of different types of social influence may vary consistently across domains of measurement.
Combined linkage and association sib-pair analysis for quantitative traits.
An extension to current maximum-likelihood variance-components procedures for mapping quantitative-trait loci in sib pairs that allows a simultaneous test of allelic association is proposed, which partitions the mean effect of a locus into between- and within-sibship components.
Behavioral disinhibition: liability for externalizing spectrum disorders and its genetic and environmental relation to response inhibition across adolescence.
Results indicated that, at age 12, behavioral disinhibition was dominated by ADHD and conduct problems and was highly heritable, and response inhibition may be an important mechanism underlying vulnerability to disinhibitory psychopathology.
Genetic and environmental influences on substance initiation, use, and problem use in adolescents.
- S. Rhee, J. Hewitt, S. Young, R. Corley, T. Crowley, M. Stallings
- MedicineArchives of general psychiatry
- 1 December 2003
The moderate to substantial heritabilities found for adolescents in the present study are comparable to those found in twin studies of adult substance use and substance use disorders and the finding that problem use is more heritable than initiation and use is consistent with the results of adult twin studies.
Genetic and environmental influences on behavioral disinhibition.
- S. Young, M. Stallings, R. Corley, K. Krauter, J. Hewitt
- PsychologyAmerican journal of medical genetics
- 9 October 2000
The results suggest that a variety of adolescent problem behaviors may share a common underlying genetic risk, and a residual correlation between conduct disorder and substance experimentation and novelty seeking was explained by shared environmental effects.
Substance use, abuse and dependence in adolescence: prevalence, symptom profiles and correlates.
The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood
It is shown for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age, and this finding suggests new ways of thinking about the interface between nature and nurture during the school years.