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Deep-ocean mineral deposits as a source of critical metals for high- and green-technology applications: Comparison with land-based resources
Abstract Ferromanganese (Fe–Mn) crusts are strongly enriched relative to the Earth's lithosphere in many rare and critical metals, including Co, Te, Mo, Bi, Pt, W, Zr, Nb, Y, and rare-earth elementsExpand
Comparison of the partitioning behaviours of yttrium, rare earth elements, and titanium between hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese crusts and seawater
In order to evaluate details of the partitioning behaviours of Y, rare earth elements (REEs), and Ti between inorganic metal oxide surfaces and seawater, we studied the distribution of these elementsExpand
Uptake of elements from seawater by ferromanganese crusts: solid-phase associations and seawater speciation
Marine Fe–Mn oxyhydroxide crusts form by precipitation of dissolved components from seawater. Three hydrogenetic crust samples (one phosphatized) and two hydrothermal Mn-oxide samples were subjectedExpand
Nickel isotopic compositions of ferromanganese crusts and the constancy of deep ocean inputs and continental weathering effects over the Cenozoic
The global variability in nickel (Ni) isotope compositions in ferromanganese crusts is investigated by analysing surface samples of 24 crusts from various ocean basins by MC–ICPMS, using aExpand
Discriminating between different genetic types of marine ferro-manganese crusts and nodules based on rare earth elements and yttrium
Marine ferro-manganese (Fe–Mn) crusts and nodules are metal-rich chemical sediments that are archives of paleoceanographic proxies and potential metal resources and targets of deep-sea mining.Expand
Iron and manganese oxide mineralization in the Pacific
Abstract Iron, manganese, and iron-manganese deposits occur in nearly all geomorphologic and tectonic environments in the ocean basins and form by one or more of four processes: (1) hydrogeneticExpand
Thallium isotope variations in seawater and hydrogenetic, diagenetic, and hydrothermal ferromanganese deposits
Results are presented for the first in-depth investigation of Tl isotope variations in marine materials. The Tl isotopic measurements were conducted by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasmaExpand
Deep-Ocean Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules
Ferromanganese crusts and nodules may provide a future resource for a large variety of metals, including many that are essential for emerging high- and green-technology applications. A brief reviewExpand
News from the seabed – Geological characteristics and resource potential of deep-sea mineral resources
Highlights • Geological characteristics of deep-sea minerals vary widely. • Deep-sea mineral occurrences differ in their resource potential. • Sizes of most favorable areas of formationExpand