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Light scattering in planetary atmospheres
This paper reviews scattering theory required for analysis of light reflected by planetary atmospheres. Section 1 defines the radiative quantities which are observed. Section 2 demonstrates theExpand
[1] We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of globalExpand
Global temperature change
Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ≈1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. Expand
Radiative forcing and climate response
We examine the sensitivity of a climate model to a wide range of radiative forcings, including changes of solar irradiance, atmospheric CO2, O3, CFCs, clouds, aerosols, surface albedo, and a “ghost”Expand
Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos.
  • J. Hansen, L. Nazarenko
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 13 January 2004
Reducing soot emissions, thus restoring snow albedos to pristine high values, would have the double benefit of reducing global warming and raising the global temperature level at which dangerous anthropogenic interference occurs. Expand
Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850–1990
A global stratospheric aerosol database employed for climate simulations is described. For the period 1883-1990, aerosol optical depths are estimated from optical extinction data, whose qualityExpand
GISS analysis of surface temperature change
We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was theExpand
A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the earth's atmosphere
Abstract A method is described for rapidly computing the amount of solar energy absorbed at the earth's surface and in the atmosphere as a function of altitude. The method is a parametric treatment,Expand
Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India
A global climate model used to investigate possible aerosol contributions to trends in China and India found precipitation and temperature changes in the model that were comparable to those observed if the aerosols included a large proportion of absorbing black carbon (“soot”), similar to observed amounts. Expand
Perception of climate change
It follows that it can be state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming because their likelihood in the absence ofglobal warming was exceedingly small. Expand