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Opponent control of behavioral reinforcement by inhibitory and excitatory projections from the ventral pallidum
The ventral pallidum (VP) lies at the interface between sensory, motor, and cognitive processing—with a particular role in mounting behavioral responses to rewards. Though the VP is predominantlyExpand
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Afferent Inputs to Neurotransmitter-Defined Cell Types in the Ventral Tegmental Area.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a central role in the neural circuit control of behavioral reinforcement. Though considered a dopaminergic nucleus, the VTA contains substantial heterogeneityExpand
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Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons co-release GABA and promote positive reinforcement
In addition to dopamine neurons, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contains GABA-, glutamate- and co-releasing neurons, and recent reports suggest a complex role for the glutamate neurons inExpand
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Decrease of D2 receptor binding but increase in D2‐stimulated G‐protein activation, dopamine transporter binding and behavioural sensitization in brains of mice treated with a chronic escalating dose
Understanding the neurobiology of the transition from initial drug use to excessive drug use has been a challenge in drug addiction. We examined the effect of chronic ‘binge’ escalating dose cocaineExpand
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Preprodynorphin mediates locomotion and D2 dopamine and μ‐opioid receptor changes induced by chronic ‘binge’ cocaine administration
Evidence suggests that the κ‐opioid receptor (KOP‐r) system plays an important role in cocaine addiction. Indeed, cocaine induces endogenous KOP activity, which is a mechanism that opposesExpand
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Loss of nicotine‐induced behavioral sensitization in μ‐opioid receptor knockout mice
Repeated administration of nicotine produces behavioral sensitization. However, the possible mechanism of behavioral sensitization to nicotine remains unclear. The present study was undertaken inExpand
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The endogenous opioid system in cocaine addiction: what lessons have opioid peptide and receptor knockout mice taught us?
Cocaine addiction has become a major concern in the UK as Britain tops the European ‘league table’ for cocaine abuse. Despite its devastating health and socio‐economic consequences, no effectiveExpand
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Disrupting Glutamate Co-transmission Does Not Affect Acquisition of Conditioned Behavior Reinforced by Dopamine Neuron Activation.
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were previously found to express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and to co-transmit glutamate in the ventral striatum (VStr). ThisExpand
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Activation of Pedunculopontine Glutamate Neurons Is Reinforcing
Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is aExpand
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