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Use of the oral glucose tolerance test to assess insulin release and insulin sensitivity.
Predicting insulin sensitivity and insulin release with reasonable accuracy from simple demographic parameters and values obtained during an OGTT is possible and should be used in various clinical settings in which the use of clamps or the minimal model would be impractical. Expand
The treat-to-target trial: randomized addition of glargine or human NPH insulin to oral therapy of type 2 diabetic patients.
Systematically titrating bedtime basal insulin added to oral therapy can safely achieve 7% HbA(1c) in a majority of overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, thus reducing a leading barrier to initiating insulin. Expand
Efficacy and Safety of the Human Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog Liraglutide in Combination With Metformin and Thiazolidinedione in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes (LEAD-4 Met+TZD)
Liraglutide combined with metformin and a thiazolidinedione is a well-tolerated combination therapy for type 2 diabetes, providing significant improvements in glycemic control and C-peptide and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Expand
Metabolic effects of metformin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Metformin acts primarily by decreasing hepatic glucose output, largely by inhibiting gluconeogenesis, and also seems to induce weight loss, preferentially involving adipose tissue. Expand
Hierarchy of glycemic thresholds for counterregulatory hormone secretion, symptoms, and cerebral dysfunction.
It is concluded that there is a distinct hierarchy of responses to decrements in plasma glucose, such that the threshold for activation of counterregulatory hormone secretion occurs at higher plasma glucose levels than that for initiation of autonomic warning symptoms, which in turn occurs for onset of neuroglycopenic symptoms and deterioration in cerebral function. Expand
Role of the kidney in normal glucose homeostasis and in the hyperglycaemia of diabetes mellitus: therapeutic implications
  • J. Gerich
  • Medicine
  • Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British…
  • 1 February 2010
Diabet. Med. 27, 136–142 (2010)
Role of reduced suppression of glucose production and diminished early insulin release in impaired glucose tolerance.
Impaired glucose tolerance, the precursor of NIDDM, results primarily from reduced suppression of hepatic glucose output due to abnormal pancreatic islet-cell function. Expand
Renal gluconeogenesis: its importance in human glucose homeostasis.
Early work in animals and humans is summarized, methodological problems in assessing renal glucose release in vivo are discussed, and results of recent human studies are presented that provide evidence that the kidney may play a significant role in carbohydrate metabolism under both physiological and pathological conditions. Expand
The role of alpha-cell dysregulation in fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and therapeutic implications.
There is considerable evidence that relative hyperglucagonemia contributes to fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM, and there are several new and emerging pharmacotherapies that may improve glycemic control in part by ameliorating the hyperglycemic effects of this relative glucagon excess. Expand
Dose-response characteristics for effects of insulin on production and utilization of glucose in man.
The above dose-response relationships indicate that in man glucose production is more sensitive to changes in plasma insulin concentration than is glucose utilization; both hepatic and peripheral tissues may contain "spare" insulin receptors; and relatively minor changes in Plasma insulin concentration or insulin receptor function can cause appreciable alterations in glucose metabolism. Expand