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Mitochondrial biogenesis in the anticonvulsant mechanism of the ketogenic diet
The full anticonvulsant effect of the ketogenic diet (KD) can require weeks to develop in rats, suggesting that altered gene expression is involved. The KD typically is used in pediatric epilepsies,Expand
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Brain Glycogen Decreases with Increased Periods of Wakefulness: Implications for Homeostatic Drive to Sleep
Sleep is thought to be restorative in function, but what is restored during sleep is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased periods of wakefulness will result in decreased levels ofExpand
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Presenilin-1 Mutations Increase Levels of Ryanodine Receptors and Calcium Release in PC12 Cells and Cortical Neurons*
Many cases of early-onset inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by mutations in the presenilin-1 (PS1) gene. PS1 mutations may perturb cellular Ca2+ homeostasis and thereby render neuronsExpand
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HIV‐1 Tat through phosphorylation of NMDA receptors potentiates glutamate excitotoxicity
Toxic effects of HIV‐1 proteins contribute to altered function and decreased survival of select populations of neurons in HIV‐1‐infected brain. One such HIV‐1 protein, Tat, can activate calciumExpand
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Involvement of Inositol 1,4,5‐Trisphosphate‐Regulated Stores of Intracellular Calcium in Calcium Dysregulation and Neuron Cell Death Caused by HIV‐1 Protein Tat
Abstract : HIV‐1 infection commonly leads to neuronal cell death and a debilitating syndrome known as AIDS‐related dementia complex. The HIV‐1 protein Tat is neurotoxic, and because cell survival isExpand
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Neurobiological aspects of human immunodeficiency virus infection:Neurotoxic mechanisms
Dementia due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the commonest cause of dementia in children, young adults and middle-aged people. Its incidence continues to rise despite the use ofExpand
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Calcium signaling in the ER: its role in neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifaceted organelle that regulates protein synthesis and trafficking, cellular responses to stress, and intracellular Ca2+ levels. In neurons, it is distributedExpand
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Synergistic neurotoxicity by human immunodeficiency virus proteins Tat and gp120: Protection by memantine
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) proteins Tat and gp120 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia associated with HIV infection. Recently, we showed the presence of Tat proteinExpand
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Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury
Creatine, one of the most common food supplements used by individuals at almost every level of athleticism, promote gains in performance, strength, and fat‐free mass. Recent experimental findingsExpand
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Oxidative stress in HIV demented patients and protection ex vivo with novel antioxidants
Objective: To determine the role of oxidative stress in mediating HIV dementia and to identify novel therapeutic compounds that may block this oxidative stress. Methods: Brain tissue from patientsExpand
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