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An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: update on limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
TLDR
The purpose of this document is to update the 1999 ATS/ERS statement on limb muscle dysfunction in COPD with important advances in the understanding of the extent and nature of the structural alterations in limb muscles in patients with COPD.
Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: structural adaptation and physiologic outcomes.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that inspiratory training induces a specific functional improvement of the inspiratory muscles and adaptive changes in the structure of external intercostal muscles.
Identification and prospective validation of clinically relevant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subtypes
TLDR
In patients with COPD recruited at their first hospitalisation, three different COPD subtypes were identified and prospectively validated: ‘severe respiratory COPD’, ‘moderate respiratory COPd’ and ‘systemic COPD'.
Wood smoke exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
TLDR
A strong association between wood or charcoal smoke exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is shown, supporting its existence not only in developing countries, but also in European countries, such as Spain.
Injury of the human diaphragm associated with exertion and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
TLDR
It is concluded that sarcomere disruption is common in the human diaphragm, is more evident in patients with COPD, and is higher after inspiratory loading, especially in the diaphragem of those with COPd.
Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress: A role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease skeletal muscle dysfunction.
TLDR
The oxidative damage to muscle proteins, which precedes the characteristic respiratory changes, may contribute to muscle loss and dysfunction in smokers and patients with COPD.
Pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD.
TLDR
The present review examines the current state of the art of the pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD and finds that deconditioning seems to play a key role in peripheral muscle dysfunction.
Muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
TLDR
It is concluded that AIS patients show generalised muscle dysfunction which contributes to the reduction in their exercise capacity, even in the absence of severe ventilatory impairment.
Oxidative stress and respiratory muscle dysfunction in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
TLDR
This study shows that oxidative stress rather than nitric oxide is likely to be involved in the respiratory muscle dysfunction in severe COPD.
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