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Botulinum A Toxin Therapy: Neutralizing and Nonneutralizing Antibodies—Therapeutic Consequences
Although muscle-relaxant doses of botulinum A toxin (BoNT/A) are generally lower than doses stimulating the immune system, specific antibodies are raised in a substantial number of patients. As aExpand
Pharmaceutical, Biological, and Clinical Properties of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Products
Botulinum neurotoxin injections are a valuable treatment modality for many therapeutic indications and have revolutionized the field of aesthetic medicine so that they are the leading cosmeticExpand
Content of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Botox®/Vistabel®, Dysport®/Azzalure®, and Xeomin®/Bocouture®
AbstractBackground: Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is the active substance in preparations used for the highly effective treatment of neurologic disorders such as cervical dystonia,Expand
The complete sequence of botulinum neurotoxin type A and comparison with other clostridial neurotoxins.
The seven serologically different botulinum neurotoxins are highly potent protein toxins that inhibit neurotransmitter release from peripheral cholinergic synapses. The activated toxins consist ofExpand
Carbohydrate structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn9 mannoprotein.
The neutral oligosaccharides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn1 mnn9, mnn2 mnn9, and mnn9 mutant mannoproteins, and from mnn1 and wild type carboxypeptidase Y, have been characterized. The majorExpand
ADP-ribosylation of a 21-24 kDa eukaryotic protein(s) by C3, a novel botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase, is regulated by guanine nucleotide.
Besides botulinum C2 toxin, Clostridium botulinum type C produces another ADP-ribosyltransferase, which we termed 'C3'. ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 has a molecular mass of 25 kDa and modifies 21-24 kDaExpand
Novel Hybrid Tetracenomycins through Combinatorial Biosynthesis Using a Glycosyltransferase Encoded by the elm Genes in Cosmid 16F4 and Which Shows a Broad Sugar Substrate Specificity
Cosmid 16F4 contains 25 kb of the elloramycin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces olivaceus Tu2353. Transformation of this cosmid into a polyketide synthase (PKS)-deleted mutant of the urdamycin p...
Xeomin is free from complexing proteins.
  • J. Frevert
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International…
  • 1 June 2008
In contrast to the other botulinum toxin products Xeomin only contains the 150kD neurotoxin without complexing proteins which have no therapeutic function and don't influence the diffusion of theExpand
Design of modified botulinum neurotoxin A1 variants with a shorter persistence of paralysis and duration of action
ABSTRACT Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified by their antigenic properties into seven serotypes (A‐G) and in addition by their corresponding subtypes. They are further characterized byExpand
Botulinum A toxins: units versus units
Abstract We investigated the efficacies and potencies of two commercial preparations of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNt/A) reputed to differ in potency. Tests were conducted in vitro using theExpand