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Production and release of yessotoxins by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum and Lingulodinium polyedrum in culture.
Although YTX was detected in culture medium, with this study it was not possible to explain which is the release mechanism of the toxin in the medium, and larger amounts of toxins were observed in the cellular fraction and in the culture medium at the last stage of the culture in both species.
Morphology, toxin composition and LSU rDNA phylogeny of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) from Denmark, with some morphological observations on other European strains
Part of the Danish A. minutum gene did not resolve intraspecific relationships and could not differentiate populations with or without pore and/ or different toxin signatures, and a strain from New Zealand had a remarkably high sequence divergence.
Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish
Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell
Yessotoxins profile in strains of Protoceratium reticulatum from Spain and USA.
It is demonstrated that YTX is not always the main toxin in P. reticulatum and a high variability in YTX amounts and profile found in other locations is confirmed.
Toxin profiles of natural populations and cultures ofAlexandrium minutum Halim from Galician (Spain) coastal waters
Toxin profiles obtained from natural populations during different PSP outbreaks in different rías and from cultures are fairly consistent and suggest that at least from the toxin point of view, A. minutum was the PSP agent during the toxic outbreak in May 1984.
Separation of chlorophylls and their degradation products in marine phytoplankton by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography
SummaryAn RP-HPLC procedure which separates chlorophylls and their degradation products is described. By employing an amonium acetate buffered mobile phase and a linear gradient elution, complex
Morphogenetic diversity and biotoxin composition of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) in Irish coastal waters
The finding of supposedly non-toxic and biotoxin-producing Alexandrium species near aquaculture production sites will necessitate the use of reliable discriminative methods in phytoplankton monitoring.
Yessotoxins, a Group of Marine Polyether Toxins: an Overview
Current knowledge on the origin, producer organisms and vectors, chemical structures, metabolism, biosynthetic origin, toxicological properties, potential risks to human health and advances in detection methods of YTXs are covered.
Evidence for production of paralytic shellfish toxins by bacteria associated with Alexandrium spp. (Dinophyta) in culture
A substantial proportion of bacteria from five Alexandrium cultures originally isolated from various countries produced sodium channel blocking (SCB) toxins, as ascertained by mouse neuroblastoma assay, and the chemical nature of the SCB toxins in selected bacterial isolates was determined as paralytic shellfish toxins.
Potent neurotoxic action of the shellfish biotoxin yessotoxin on cultured cerebellar neurons.
The potent neurotoxicity of YTX is reported, which raises reasonable concern about the potential risk that exposure to YTX may represent for neuronal survival in vivo.