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Distribution Volume Ratios without Blood Sampling from Graphical Analysis of PET Data
TLDR
This technique provides an alternative method of analysis not requiring blood sampling that gives equivalent results for the two ligands studied, and requires initial studies with blood sampling to determine the average kinetic constant and to test applicability.
Brain dopamine and obesity
TLDR
Dopamine modulates motivation and reward circuits and hence dopamine deficiency in obese individuals may perpetuate pathological eating as a means to compensate for decreased activation of these circuits.
Graphical Analysis of Reversible Radioligand Binding from Time—Activity Measurements Applied to [N-11C-Methyl]-(−)-Cocaine PET Studies in Human Subjects
TLDR
It can be shown that, for many systems, linearity is effectively reached some time before this, and this method provides an easy, rapid method for comparison of the reproducibility of repeated measures in a single subject, for longitudinal or drug intervention protocols, or for comparing experimental results between subjects.
Cocaine Cues and Dopamine in Dorsal Striatum: Mechanism of Craving in Cocaine Addiction
TLDR
Evidence is provided that dopamine in the dorsal striatum is involved with craving and is a fundamental component of addiction, and strategies aimed at inhibiting dopamine increases from conditioned responses are likely to be therapeutically beneficial in cocaine addiction.
Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate.
TLDR
Oral methylphenidate is very effective in blocking dopamine transporters, and at the weight-adjusted doses used therapeutically (0.3 to 0.6 mg/kg), it is likely to occupy more than 50% of the dopamineTransporter.
Low level of brain dopamine D2 receptors in methamphetamine abusers: association with metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex.
TLDR
The association between level of dopamine D2 receptors and metabolism in the orbit ofrontal cortex in methamphetamine abusers suggests that D2 receptor-mediated dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex could underlie a common mechanism for loss of control and compulsive drug intake in drug-addicted subjects.
Loss of Dopamine Transporters in Methamphetamine Abusers Recovers with Protracted Abstinence
TLDR
It is suggested that protracted abstinence may reverse some of methamphetamine-induced alterations in brain DA terminals, and neuropsychological tests did not improve to the same extent as during short abstinence, which suggests that the increase of the DA transporters was not sufficient for complete function recovery.
Association of dopamine transporter reduction with psychomotor impairment in methamphetamine abusers.
TLDR
Evidence is provided that methamphetamine at dose levels taken by human abusers of the drug leads to dopamine transporter reduction that is associated with motor and cognitive impairment and the urgency of alerting clinicians and the public of the long-term changes that methamphetamine can induce in the human brain.
Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability is associated with reduced frontal metabolism in cocaine abusers
TLDR
When compared to normal controls, cocaine abusers showed significant decreases in dopamine D2 receptor availability which persisted 3‐4 months after detoxification, and these decreases were associated with decreased metabolism in several regions of the frontal of these brain areas which are involved in the channeling of drive and affect.
Therapeutic Doses of Oral Methylphenidate Significantly Increase Extracellular Dopamine in the Human Brain
TLDR
There is direct evidence that oral methylphenidate at doses within the therapeutic range significantly increases extracellular DA in human brain, and this result coupled with recent findings of increased dopamine transporters in ADHD patients provides a mechanistic framework for the therapeutic efficacy of methyl phenidate.
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