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The Endomorphin System and Its Evolving Neurophysiological Role
Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) are two endogenous opioid peptides with high affinity and remarkable selectivity for the μ-opioid receptor. TheExpand
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Review article: the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases
In this review, we focus on the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer and discuss free radicals and freeExpand
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Brain-Gut Interactions in IBS
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with an estimated prevalence of 10–20%. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of IBS is incomplete due to the lack of aExpand
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Opioid receptors and their ligands.
This review gives a historical perspective, summarizing approximately 25 years of research on opioids. The "typical" opioid peptides produced in the brain, "atypical" opioids encrypted in milkExpand
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A Randomized Clinical Trial of Berberine Hydrochloride in Patients with Diarrhea‐Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome
We aimed to evaluate clinical symptoms in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS‐D) receiving berberine hydrochloride in a randomized double‐blind placebo‐controlled clinical trial.Expand
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Salvinorin A inhibits colonic transit and neurogenic ion transport in mice by activating κ‐opioid and cannabinoid receptors
Abstract  The major active ingredient of the plant Salvia divinorum, salvinorin A (SA) has been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. As the action of SA on the regulation of colonic functionExpand
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Distribution, function and physiological role of melatonin in the lower gut.
Melatonin is a hormone with endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions. It is involved in the regulation of multiple functions, including the control of the gastrointestinal (GI) system underExpand
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The role of morphine in regulation of cancer cell growth
Morphine is considered the “gold standard” for relieving pain and is currently one of the most effective drugs available clinically for the management of severe pain associated with cancer. InExpand
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Beneficial Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, and Psychobiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Abstract:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the small and large intestine and primarily includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. AlthoughExpand
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Salvinorin A has antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in experimental models of colitis in mice mediated by KOR and CB1 receptors*
Background: Salvinorin A (SA) has a potent inhibitory action on mouse gastrointestinal (GI) motility and ion transport, mediated primarily by kappa‐opioid receptors (KOR). The aim of the presentExpand
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