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Pre-Bötzinger complex: a brainstem region that may generate respiratory rhythm in mammals.
The location of neurons generating the rhythm of breathing in mammals is unknown. By microsection of the neonatal rat brainstem in vitro, a limited region of the ventral medulla (the pre-BötzingerExpand
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Modulation of respiratory frequency by peptidergic input to rhythmogenic neurons in the preBötzinger complex.
Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and mu-opioid receptor (muOR) agonists affected respiratory rhythm when injected directly into the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratoryExpand
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Breathing: rhythmicity, plasticity, chemosensitivity.
Breathing is a vital behavior that is particularly amenable to experimental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems of broad interest. (i) Where and how is respiratory rhythmExpand
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Synaptic control of motoneuronal excitability.
Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentialsExpand
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Normal breathing requires preBötzinger complex neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons
The normal breathing rhythm in mammals is hypothesized to be generated by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)-expressing neurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a medullary region proposed to containExpand
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Sodium and Calcium Current-Mediated Pacemaker Neurons and Respiratory Rhythm Generation
The breathing motor pattern in mammals originates in brainstem networks. Whether pacemaker neurons play an obligatory role remains a key unanswered question. We performed whole-cell recordings in theExpand
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Distinct rhythm generators for inspiration and expiration in the juvenile rat
Inspiration and active expiration are commonly viewed as antagonistic phases of a unitary oscillator that generates respiratory rhythm. This view conflicts with observations we report here inExpand
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Inspiratory bursts in the preBötzinger complex depend on a calcium‐activated non‐specific cation current linked to glutamate receptors in neonatal mice
Inspiratory neurons of the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) form local excitatory networks and display 10–30 mV transient depolarizations, dubbed inspiratory drive potentials, with superimposedExpand
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Understanding the rhythm of breathing: so near, yet so far.
Breathing is an essential behavior that presents a unique opportunity to understand how the nervous system functions normally, how it balances inherent robustness with a highly regulated lability,Expand
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Active Expiration Induced by Excitation of Ventral Medulla in Adult Anesthetized Rats
Data from perinatal and juvenile rodents support our hypothesis that the preBötzinger complex generates inspiratory rhythm and the retrotrapezoid nucleus–parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG)Expand
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