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Estrogen receptor null mice: what have we learned and where will they lead us?
TLDR
The recent successful generation of double knockout, or alpha beta ERKO mice of both sexes, suggests that this receptor is also not essential to survival and was most likely not a compensatory factor in the survival of the alpha ERKO.
Alteration of reproductive function but not prenatal sexual development after insertional disruption of the mouse estrogen receptor gene.
TLDR
Prenatal male and female reproductive tract development can occur in the absence of estradiol receptor-mediated responsiveness, and the uteri and vagina do not respond in the animals with the estrogen receptor gene disruption.
The Multifaceted Mechanisms of Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Signaling*
TLDR
This minireview will discuss the recent progress toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of estrogen signaling, focusing on the following four pathways: 1) classical ligand-dependent; 2) ligand -independent; 3) DNA binding-independent; and 4) cell-surface (nongenomic) signaling.
Generation and reproductive phenotypes of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta.
TLDR
The generation of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta -/-) is described by insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into exon 3 of the coding gene by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to determine the role of ERbeta in bone and cardiovascular homeostasis.
Postnatal Sex Reversal of the Ovaries in Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptors α and β
TLDR
Loss of both receptors leads to an ovarian phenotype that is distinct from that of the individual ERKO mutants, which indicates that both receptors are required for the maintenance of germ and somatic cells in the postnatal ovary.
Postnatal sex reversal of the ovaries in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta.
TLDR
It is shown that loss of both receptors leads to an ovarian phenotype that is distinct from that of the individual ERKO mutants, which indicates that both receptors are required for the maintenance of germ and somatic cells in the postnatal ovary.
Tissue Distribution and Quantitative Analysis of Estrogen Receptor-α (ERα) and Estrogen Receptor-β (ERβ) Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in the Wild-Type and ERα-Knockout Mouse.
TLDR
The optimization and use of an RNase protection assay able to detect and distinguish messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts from both the ERalpha and ERbeta genes in the mouse suggest that the biological functions of the ERbeta protein may be dependent on the presence of ERalpha in certain cell types and tissues.
Tissue distribution and quantitative analysis of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) messenger ribonucleic acid in the wild-type and ERalpha-knockout mouse.
TLDR
The optimization and use of an RNase protection assay able to detect and distinguish messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts from both the ERalpha and ERbeta genes in the mouse suggest that the biological functions of the ERbeta protein may be dependent on the presence of ERalpha in certain cell types and tissues.
Analysis of transcription and estrogen insensitivity in the female mouse after targeted disruption of the estrogen receptor gene.
TLDR
Despite residual amounts of an impaired ER variant, estrogen insensitivity in the female ERKOs was confirmed by the failure of estrogen treatment to induce known uterine markers of estrogen action, and transcription of the progesterone receptor, lactoferrin, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase genes.
Estrogen receptor-beta is critical to granulosa cell differentiation and the ovulatory response to gonadotropins.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that ERbeta-mediated estradiol actions are vital to FSH-induced granulosa cell differentiation; and in the absence of ERbeta, preovulatory follicles are deficient in the necessary cellular organization and receptor signaling pathways.
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