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Estrogen receptor null mice: what have we learned and where will they lead us?
All scientific investigations begin with distinct objectives: first is the hypothesis upon which studies are undertaken to disprove, and second is the overall aim of obtaining further information,Expand
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Alteration of reproductive function but not prenatal sexual development after insertional disruption of the mouse estrogen receptor gene.
Estrogen receptor and its ligand, estradiol, have long been thought to be essential for survival, fertility, and female sexual differentiation and development. Consistent with this proposed crucialExpand
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Generation and reproductive phenotypes of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta.
Estrogens influence the differentiation and maintenance of reproductive tissues and affect lipid metabolism and bone remodeling. Two estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified to date, ERalpha andExpand
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The Multifaceted Mechanisms of Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Signaling*
The steroid hormone 17 -estradiol (E2) is a key regulator of growth, differentiation, and function in a wide array of target tissues, including the male and female reproductive tracts, mammary gland,Expand
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Postnatal sex reversal of the ovaries in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta.
Mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta were generated to clarify the roles of each receptor in the physiology of estrogen target tissues. Both sexes of alphabeta estrogen receptor knockoutExpand
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Postnatal Sex Reversal of the Ovaries in Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptors α and β
Mice lacking estrogen receptors α and β were generated to clarify the roles of each receptor in the physiology of estrogen target tissues. Both sexes of αβ estrogen receptor knockout (αβERKO) mutantsExpand
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Analysis of transcription and estrogen insensitivity in the female mouse after targeted disruption of the estrogen receptor gene.
We employed homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells to disrupt the estrogen receptor (ER) gene. Subsequently generated mice that are homozygous for the gene disruption, termed ERKO,Expand
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Tissue distribution and quantitative analysis of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) messenger ribonucleic acid in the wild-type and ERalpha-knockout mouse.
Until recently, only a single type of estrogen receptor (ER) was thought to exist and mediate the genomic effects of the hormone 17beta-estradiol in mammalian tissues. However, the cloning of a geneExpand
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Tissue Distribution and Quantitative Analysis of Estrogen Receptor-α (ERα) and Estrogen Receptor-β (ERβ) Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in the Wild-Type and ERα-Knockout Mouse.
Until recently, only a single type of estrogen receptor (ER) was thought to exist and mediate the genomic effects of the hormone 17beta-estradiol in mammalian tissues. However, the cloning of a geneExpand
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Estrogen receptor-beta is critical to granulosa cell differentiation and the ovulatory response to gonadotropins.
The process of granulosa cell differentiation that occurs in preovulatory follicles is dependent on FSH but requires augmentation by estradiol. To determine which estrogen receptor (ER) form mediatesExpand
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