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An overlapping essential gene in the Potyviridae
TLDR
This work reports the discovery of a short ORF embedded within the P3 cistron of the polyprotein but translated in the +2 reading-frame, which suggests that other short overlapping genes may remain hidden even in well studied virus genomes and demonstrates the utility of the software package MLOGD as a tool for identifying such genes.
NS1′ of Flaviviruses in the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Serogroup Is a Product of Ribosomal Frameshifting and Plays a Role in Viral Neuroinvasiveness
TLDR
Experimental evidence is provided that NS1′ is the product of a −1 ribosomal frameshift event that occurs at a conserved slippery heptanucleotide motif located near the beginning of the NS2A gene and is stimulated by a downstream RNA pseudoknot structure.
Deletion of Selenoprotein P Alters Distribution of Selenium in the Mouse*
TLDR
The results suggest that Se-P from liver provides selenium to several tissues, especially testis and brain, and indicate that transport forms of seenium other than Se-p exist because selenia levels of all tissues except testis responded to increases of dietary selenIUM in Sepp −/− mice.
Discovery of a small arterivirus gene that overlaps the GP5 coding sequence and is important for virus production
TLDR
An in-depth computational analysis reveals the arterivirus-wide conservation of an additional AUG-initiated ORF, here termed ORF5a, that overlaps the 5′ end of OrF5, and indicates that the novel protein, which may be the eighth structural protein of arteriviruses, is expressed and important for arteriv virus infection.
Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: From genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use
TLDR
Together with dynamic codon redefinition, frameshifting is one of the forms of recoding that enriches gene expression and generates productively utilized products encoded trans-frame with respect to the genomic sequence.
Efficient −2 frameshifting by mammalian ribosomes to synthesize an additional arterivirus protein
TLDR
It is shown that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and apparently most other arteriviruses, use an additional PRF mechanism to access a conserved alternative ORF that overlaps the nsp2-encoding region of ORF1a in the +1 frame, demonstrating that −2 PRF is a functional gene-expression mechanism in eukaryotes and add another layer to the complexity of arterivirus genome expression.
A dual-luciferase reporter system for studying recoding signals.
TLDR
The dual-luciferase reporter system has been applied to in vivo and in vitro recoding of HIV-1 gag-pol, MMTV gag-pro, MuLV gag-Pol, and human antizyme and is applicable for high throughput screening procedures.
A conserved predicted pseudoknot in the NS2A-encoding sequence of West Nile and Japanese encephalitis flaviviruses suggests NS1' may derive from ribosomal frameshifting
TLDR
It is hypothesized that the functional importance of the pseudoknot is to stimulate a portion of ribosomes to shift -1 nt into a short (45 codon), conserved, overlapping open reading frame, termed foo.
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