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Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems
Ecological extinction caused by overfishing precedes all other pervasive human disturbance to coastal ecosystems, including pollution, degradation of water quality, and anthropogenic climate change.
Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future
TLDR
The conditions in which kelp forests develop globally and where, why and at what rate they become deforested are reviewed and overfishing appears to be the greatest manageable threat to kelp forest ecosystems over the 2025 time horizon.
Status and Ecological Effects of the World’s Largest Carnivores
TLDR
The status, threats, and ecological importance of the 31 largest mammalian carnivores globally are reviewed and a Global Large Carnivore Initiative is proposed to coordinate local, national, and international research, conservation, and policy.
Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth
TLDR
This empirical work supports long-standing theory about the role of top-down forcing in ecosystems but also highlights the unanticipated impacts of trophic cascades on processes as diverse as the dynamics of disease, wildfire, carbon sequestration, invasive species, and biogeochemical cycles.
Challenges in the Quest for Keystones
TLDR
This list of scientists and lecturers from the United States and Canada who have contributed to the scientific literature over the past 25 years has been compiled.
Magnification of Secondary Production by Kelp Detritus in Coastal Marine Ecosystems
TLDR
Stable carbon isotope analysis confirmed that kelp-derived carbon is found throughout the nearshore food web.
COMPARING MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF COASTAL MARINE RESERVES
Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes re- sponsible for biological
Sea Otters: Their Role in Structuring Nearshore Communities
TLDR
A comparison of western Aleutian Islands with and without sea otter populations shows that this species is important in determining littoral and sublittoral community structure and suggests that sea otters indirectly affects island fauna associated with macrophyte primary productivity.
Individual variation in prey selection by sea otters: patterns, causes and implications
TLDR
Longitudinal records of prey selection by 10 adult female sea otters on the Monterey Peninsula, California, from 1983 to 1990 demonstrate extreme inter-individual variation in diet, which has broad ramifications for population and community ecology.
Marine defaunation: Animal loss in the global ocean
TLDR
Today’s low rates of marine extinction may be the prelude to a major extinction pulse, similar to that observed on land during the industrial revolution, as the footprint of human ocean use widens.
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