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Narcolepsy in orexin Knockout Mice Molecular Genetics of Sleep Regulation
Neurons containing the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) are located exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus and send axons to numerous regions throughout the central nervous system, including theExpand
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Differential expression of orexin receptors 1 and 2 in the rat brain
Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides synthesized in the central nervous system exclusively by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Orexin‐containing neurons have widespread projections and haveExpand
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Endocrine regulation of the fasting response by PPARalpha-mediated induction of fibroblast growth factor 21.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates the utilization of fat as an energy source during starvation and is the molecular target for the fibrate dyslipidemia drugs.Expand
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Divergence of Melanocortin Pathways in the Control of Food Intake and Energy Expenditure
Activation of melanocortin-4-receptors (MC4Rs) reduces body fat stores by decreasing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. MC4Rs are expressed in multiple CNS sites, any number of whichExpand
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Expression of ghrelin receptor mRNA in the rat and the mouse brain
Ghrelin is a hormone that stimulates growth hormone secretion and signals energy insufficiency via interaction with its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). The GHSR is locatedExpand
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Chemically defined projections linking the mediobasal hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamic area
Recent studies have identified several neuropeptide systems in the hypothalamus that are critical in the regulation of body weight. The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has long been consideredExpand
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Leptin Directly Activates SF1 Neurons in the VMH, and This Action by Leptin Is Required for Normal Body-Weight Homeostasis
Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts directly on the brain to control food intake and energy expenditure. An important question is the identity of first-order neurons initiating leptin'sExpand
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Leptin Activates Hypothalamic CART Neurons Projecting to the Spinal Cord
The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin decreases body weight in part by activating the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in increased thermogenesis and energy expenditure. We investigatedExpand
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From Lesions to Leptin Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake and Body Weight
By 1940, Hetherington and Ranson had laid to rest most doubts regarding the importance of the hypothalamus in regulating body weight. However, their electrolytic lesions were inherently crude andExpand
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Identification of SOCS-3 as a potential mediator of central leptin resistance.
Leptin affects food intake and body weight by actions on the hypothalamus. Although leptin resistance is common in obesity, mechanisms have not been identified. We examined the effect of leptin onExpand
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