• Publications
  • Influence
Finding Structure in Time
  • J. Elman
  • Computer Science
  • Cogn. Sci.
  • 1 March 1990
A proposal along these lines first described by Jordan (1986) which involves the use of recurrent links in order to provide networks with a dynamic memory and suggests a method for representing lexical categories and the type/token distinction is developed. Expand
The TRACE model of speech perception
The TRACE model, described in detail elsewhere, deals with short segments of real speech, and suggests a mechanism for coping with the fact that the cues to the identity of phonemes vary as a function of context. Expand
Learning and development in neural networks: the importance of starting small
  • J. Elman
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Cognition
  • 1 July 1993
Possible synergistic interactions between maturational change and the ability to learn a complex domain (language) as investigated in connectionist networks suggest that developmental restrictions on resources may constitute a necessary prerequisite for mastering certain complex domains. Expand
Distributed Representations, Simple Recurrent Networks, And Grammatical Structure
In this paper three problems for a connectionist account of language are considered:1. What is the nature of linguistic representations?2. How can complex structural relationships such as constituentExpand
Coherence and Coreference Revisited
The results suggest that pronoun interpretation is incrementally influenced by probabilistic expectations that hearers have regarding what coherence relations are likely to ensue, together with their expectations about what entities will be mentioned next, which, crucially, are conditioned on those coherence Relations. Expand
Distributed representations, simple recurrent networks, and grammatical structure
AbstractIn this paper three problems for a connectionist account of language are considered1.What is the nature of linguistic representations?2.How can complex structural relationships such asExpand
Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis.
This work provides a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition. Expand
Knowing a lot for one's age: Vocabulary skill and not age is associated with anticipatory incremental sentence interpretation in children and adults.
Current views of incremental processing in which adults and children make use of linguistic information to continuously update their mental representation of ongoing language are extended. Expand
On the Meaning of Words and Dinosaur Bones: Lexical Knowledge Without a Lexicon
  • J. Elman
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Cogn. Sci.
  • 1 June 2009
A set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis are reviewed, which poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Expand
Cognitive penetration of the mechanisms of perception: Compensation for coarticulation of lexically restored phonemes
An important question in language processing is whether higher-level processes are able to interact directly with lower-level processes, as assumed by interactive models such as the TRACE model ofExpand