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Detection of a novel human coronavirus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for a novel human coronavirus, targeting regions upstream of the E gene (upE) or within open reading frame (ORF)1b, respectively, observed no cross-reactivity with coronaviruses OC43, NL63, 229E, SARS-CoV or with 92 clinical specimens containing common human respiratory viruses.
Genomic Characterization of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus in European Bats and Classification of Coronaviruses Based on Partial RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Gene Sequences
An evaluation of CoV in rhinolophid and vespertilionid bat species common in Europe found that proteins 3b and 6 were highly divergent from those proteins in all known SARS-related CoV, highlighting the importance of assessments of the zoonotic potential of widely distributed bat-borne CoV.
Assays for laboratory confirmation of novel human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) infections.
We present a rigorously validated and highly sensitive confirmatory real-time RT-PCR assay (1A assay) that can be used in combination with the previously reported upE assay. Two additional RT-PCR
Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses
Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents.
Rooting the Phylogenetic Tree of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus by Characterization of a Conspecific Virus from an African Bat
The full genome sequence of a CoV was determined directly from fecal material obtained from a South African Neoromicia capensis bat, providing evidence for the evolution of MERS-CoV in camels that preceded that in humans and suggesting that humans are infected by camels rather than vice versa.
Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe
Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 originated from bats, and their genetic relatedness indicated E MC/2012 originate from bats.
Distant Relatives of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Close Relatives of Human Coronavirus 229E in Bats, Ghana
Hipposideros spp. bats harbor a coronavirus that shares common ancestry with human viruses.
Amplification of Emerging Viruses in a Bat Colony
Concentration and prevalence of coronaviruses and astroviruses increase when bats form maternity roosts and bear young.