The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults.
- T. Young, M. Palta, J. Dempsey, J. Skatrud, S. Weber, S. Badr
- Medicine, PsychologyNew England Journal of Medicine
- 29 April 1993
The prevalence of undiagnosed sleep-disordered breathing is high among men and is much higher than previously suspected among women, and is associated with daytime hypersomnolence.
Pathophysiology of sleep apnea.
This work reviews three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA and discusses future research into understanding the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as a basis for uncovering newer forms of treatment of both the ventilatory disorder and its multiple sequelae.
Longitudinal study of moderate weight change and sleep-disordered breathing.
The data indicate that clinical and public health programs that result in even modest weight control are likely to be effective in managing SDB and reducing new occurrence of SDB.
Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia.
It is suggested that mild EIAH be defined as an arterial O(2) saturation of 93-95% (or 3-4% 25-30 Torr) and inadequate compensatory hyperventilatory response, as do acid- and temperature-induced shifts in O( 2) dissociation at any given arterial PO(2).
Respiratory muscle work compromises leg blood flow during maximal exercise.
It is concluded that Wb normally incurred during maximal exercise causes vasoconstriction in locomotor muscles and compromises locomotor muscle perfusion and VO2.
Locomotor muscle fatigue modifies central motor drive in healthy humans and imposes a limitation to exercise performance
It is suggested that feedback from fatiguing muscle plays an important role in the determination of central motor drive and force output, so that the development of peripheral muscle fatigue is confined to a certain level.
Mechanical constraints on exercise hyperpnea in endurance athletes.
It is concluded that during maximal exercise, highly trained individuals often reach the mechanical limits of the lung and respiratory muscle for producing alveolar ventilation, which is achieved at a considerable metabolic cost but with a mechanically optimal pattern of breathing and respiratory Muscle recruitment and without sacrifice of a significantAlveolar hyperventilation.
Exercise‐induced arterial hypoxaemia in healthy human subjects at sea level.
It is suggested that hypoxaemia may be attributed to a diffusion limitation secondary to very short red cell transit times in at least a portion of the pulmonary circulation and non‐uniformity of the VA/QC distribution or veno‐arterial shunt could explain the hypoxAemia observed in most of the authors' subjects.
Effects of respiratory muscle work on cardiac output and its distribution during maximal exercise.
It is shown that the respiratory muscle work normally expended during maximal exercise has two significant effects on the cardiovascular system: up to 14-16% of the CO is directed to the respiratory muscles; and local reflex vasoconstriction significantly compromises blood flow to leg locomotor muscles.
Exercise‐induced diaphragmatic fatigue in healthy humans.
It is concluded that significant diaphragmatic fatigue is caused by the ventilatory requirements imposed by heavy endurance exercise in healthy persons with a variety of fitness levels.