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The 2006 outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe--the entomological perspective.
After bluetongue (BT) appeared in northern Europe in August 2006 entomological studies were implemented in all five affected Member States to establish which species of Culicoides had acted as vectors, highlighting the need for morphological and molecular techniques to become more fully integrated to ensure progress in the accurate identification of vector Culicoide. Expand
The taxonomy of Culicoides vector complexes - unfinished business.
Using both morphological and molecular second internal transcribed spacer sequence data, the authors reappraise the taxonomy of these four species and their congeners and indicate that at least three previously described species of Palaearctic Culicoides should be resurrected from synonymy. Expand
Indoor activity of Culicoides associated with livestock in the bluetongue virus (BTV) affected region of northern France during autumn 2006.
A key finding has been the substantiation, for the first time, that Culicoides, and particularly the potential vectors C. obsoletus/C. Expand
Phylogenetic analysis of Culicoides species from France based on nuclear ITS1‐rDNA sequences
Construction of several trees showed that molecular phylogeny within the genus Culicoides correlates not only with morphological‐based taxonomy but also with ecological patterns. Expand
Phylogeny of the subgenus Culicoides and related species in Italy, inferred from internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA sequences
Strong congruence between morphological and molecular data holds promise for resolving many of the difficult taxonomic issues plaguing the accurate identification of vector Culicoides around the world. Expand
Phylogenetic relationships of the subgenus Avaritia
Fox, 1955 including Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in Italy based on internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA sequences
The study showed that at least seven species of the subgenus Avaritia occur in Italy and showed that a simple polymerase chain reaction assay was developed that rapidly discriminates between four members of the Obsoletus Complex in Italy, a prerequisite for vector identification. Expand
Biting midges overwintering in Belgium
Following the emergence of blue-tongue in Belgium, bluetongue has been diagnosed on 399 sheep and 296 cattle farms and the last clinical case was recorded on January 15, 2007. Expand
The emergence of Schmallenberg virus across Culicoides communities and ecosystems in Europe.
Culicoides from SBV outbreak areas of mainland France and Italy (Sardinia) were screened for viral RNA and oral competence for SBV of two abundant and widespread mosquito vector species in the laboratory is assessed and neither Aedes albopictus nor Culex pipiens were demonstrated to replicate SBV to transmissible levels and appear unlikely to play a major role in transmission. Expand
Contribution to the knowledge of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences in France
Cattle DNA was found in at least 11 different species of Culicoides assayed, and direct sequencing and comparison of resultant sequences with sequences in GenBank, using BLAST, lead to the specific identification of the host in 100% of the cases. Expand
Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe.
An ITS1 rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay was developed to rapidly and reliably identify Culicoides spp. Expand