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Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses
A new quantity is developed, I 2, which the authors believe gives a better measure of the consistency between trials in a meta-analysis, which is susceptible to the number of trials included in the meta- analysis.
QUADAS-2: A Revised Tool for the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies
The QUADAS-2 tool will allow for more transparent rating of bias and applicability of primary diagnostic accuracy studies.
ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions
Risk of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions is developed, a new tool for evaluating risk of bias in estimates of the comparative effectiveness of interventions from studies that did not use randomisation to allocate units or clusters of individuals to comparison groups.
Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies.
The inability of case-mix adjustment methods to compensate for selection bias and the inability to identify non- randomised studies that are free of selection bias indicate that non-randomised studies should only be undertaken when RCTs are infeasible or unethical.
Schizophrenia and suicide: systematic review of risk factors.
Prevention of suicide in schizophrenia is likely to result from treatment of affective symptoms, improving adherence to treatment, and maintaining special vigilance in patients with risk factors, especially after losses, according to the international literature on case-control and cohort studies.
Chapter 9: Analysing Data and Undertaking Meta-Analyses
This extract is made available solely for use in the authoring, editing or refereeing of Cochrane reviews, or for training in these processes by representatives of formal entities of The Cochrane
The performance of tests of publication bias and other sample size effects in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy was assessed.
The effective sample size funnel plot and associated regression test of asymmetry should be used to detect publication bias and other sample size related effects in meta-analyses of test accuracy.
Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials
How to interpret funnel plot asymmetry, recommends appropriate tests, and explains the implications for choice of meta-analysis model are described.
Diagnostic tests 4: likelihood ratios
Likelihood ratios are alternative statistics for summarising diagnostic accuracy, which have several particularly powerful properties that make them more useful clinically than other statistics.