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Decrease in reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase67 (GAD67) expression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a postmortem brain study.
TLDR
The selective down-regulation of RELN and GAD(67) in prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder who have psychosis is consistent with the hypothesis that these parameters are vulnerability factors in psychosis; this plus the loss of the correlation between these 2 parameters that exists in nonpsychotic subjects support the hypotheses that these changes may be liability factors underlying psychosis. Expand
Possible mechanisms of central nervous system fatigue during exercise.
TLDR
Clearly fatigue during prolonged exercise is influenced by multiple CNS and peripheral factors, and elucidation of how CNS influences affect fatigue is relevant for achieving optimal muscular performance in athletics as well as everyday life. Expand
The effects of risperidone on the five dimensions of schizophrenia derived by factor analysis: combined results of the North American trials.
TLDR
The large between-group differences on negative symptoms, hostility/excitement, and anxiety/depression suggest that risperidone and other serotonin/dopamine antagonists have qualitatively different effects from those of conventional antipsychotic agents. Expand
A decrease of reelin expression as a putative vulnerability factor in schizophrenia.
TLDR
In all of the brain areas studied, RELN and its mRNA were significantly reduced in patients with schizophrenia; this decrease was similar in patients affected by undifferentiated or paranoid schizophrenia and is interpreted within a neurodevelopmental/vulnerability "two-hit" model for the etiology of schizophrenia. Expand
Increase in the cerebrospinal fluid content of neurosteroids in patients with unipolar major depression who are receiving fluoxetine or fluvoxamine.
TLDR
The normalization of CSF ALLO content in depressed patients appears to be sufficient to mediate the anxiolytic and antidysphoric actions of fluoxetine or fluvoxamine via its positive allosteric modulation of GABA type A receptors. Expand
Influence of carbohydrate ingestion on immune changes after 2 h of intensive resistance training.
TLDR
CHO vs. Pla ingestion did not alter modest increases measured for plasma IL-6,IL-10, IL-1ra, and IL-8, and Muscle cytokine mRNA was detected preexercise forIL-1beta, IL -6, Il-15, IL, 8, and TNF-alpha and the increase in mRNA did not differ between CHO and Pla groups. Expand
Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue.
TLDR
Testing the hypothesis that blockade of central nervous system (CNS) adenosine receptors may explain the beneficial effect of caffeine on fatigue suggests that caffeine can delay fatigue through CNS mechanisms, at least in part by blocking adenosines receptors. Expand
Carbohydrate ingestion influences skeletal muscle cytokine mRNA and plasma cytokine levels after a 3-h run.
TLDR
CHO compared with Pla beverage ingestion attenuates the increase in plasma IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1ra and gene expression for IL-8 in athletes running 3 h at 70% Vo(2 max) despite no differences in muscle glycogen content. Expand
Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance.
TLDR
The benefits of querectin on fitness without exercise training may have important implications for enhancement of athletic and military performance and may also extend to prevention and/or treatment of chronic diseases. Expand
Carbohydrates and physical/mental performance during intermittent exercise to fatigue.
TLDR
Results suggest a beneficial role of carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion on physical and mental function during intermittent exercise similar to that of many competitive team sports. Expand
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