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Retinoic Acid and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Synergize to Efficiently Direct Epithelial Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
TLDR
It is suggested that RA plays an important role in epithelial differentiation of hESCs, which efficiently differentiated to keratin 14‐expressing epithelial cells, although this effect was dependent upon on the context of bone morphogenetic protein signaling.
Cryopreservation of adherent human embryonic stem cells
TLDR
This method increases cell viability by over an order of magnitude compared with cryopreservation in suspension and reduces differentiation, and has the potential to reduce the time required to amplify frozen stocks of HES cells, minimize risk of clonal selection during freeze–thaw cycles, and facilitate storage of Hes cell clone libraries.
The microwell control of embryoid body size in order to regulate cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.
TLDR
It is concluded that microwell-engineered EB size regulates cardiogenesis and can be used for more efficient and reproducible formation of hESC-CMs needed for research and therapeutic applications.
Inhibition of human embryonic stem cell differentiation by mechanical strain
TLDR
While mechanical forces play a role in regulating hESC self‐renewal and differentiation, they must act synergistically with chemical signals, towards controlling differentiation of hESCs for therapeutic applications.
Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behavior of an amyloid fibril inhibitor
TLDR
This work uses isotope labeling and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to obtain a residue-specific structure for the complex of human amylin, the peptide responsible for islet amyloid formation in type 2 diabetes, with a known inhibitor, rat amyl in.
3-D microwell culture of human embryonic stem cells.
TLDR
A 3-D microwell-based method to maintain undifferentiated hESC cultures for weeks without passaging using physical and extracellular matrix patterning constraints to limit colony growth is developed.
TGFbeta/Activin/Nodal pathway in inhibition of human embryonic stem cell differentiation by mechanical strain.
TLDR
Findings show that TGFbeta superfamily activation of Smad2/3 is required for repression of spontaneous differentiation under strain and suggest that strain may induce autocrine or paracrine signaling through TGF beta superfamily ligands.
Electroporation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Small and Macromolecule Loading and DNA Transfection
TLDR
Electroporation parameters of pulse voltage, duration, and number have been explored and evaluated in terms of cell viability, molecular loading, and transfection efficiency on a per cell basis and there was a dramatic loss of viability with GST‐GFP loading and DNA transfections.
Density Multiplication and Improved Lithography by Directed Block Copolymer Assembly
TLDR
This work directed the assembly of defect-free arrays of isolated block copolymer domains at densities up to 1 terabit per square inch on chemically patterned surfaces, increasing the density, size, and dimensional uniformity, and comparing the assembled structures to the chemical pattern are compared.
Mechanism of IAPP amyloid fibril formation involves an intermediate with a transient β-sheet
TLDR
2D infrared spectroscopy and isotope labeling are used to monitor the kinetics of fibril formation by human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) that is associated with type 2 diabetes and find that an oligomeric intermediate forms during the lag phase with parallel β-sheet structure in a region that is ultimately a partially disordered loop in the fibrils.
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