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A Collective Self-Esteem Scale: Self-Evaluation of One's Social Identity
Social identity theory as developed by Tajfel and Turner argues that there are two distinct aspects of the self-concept: personal identity and social identity (in American terminology, collectiveExpand
Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma.
Although several psychological theories predict that members of stigmatized groups should have low global self-esteem, empirical research typically does not support this prediction. It is proposedExpand
Contingencies of self-worth in college students: theory and measurement.
TLDR
In confirmatory factor analyses on data from 1,418 college students, a 7-factor model fit to the data acceptably well and significantly better than several plausible alternative models. Expand
Contingencies of Self-Worth
TLDR
It is argued that the importance of self-esteem lies in what people believe they need to be or do to have worth as a person and that this pursuit ofSelf-esteem has costs to learning, relationships, autonomy, self-regulation, and mental and physical health. Expand
The costly pursuit of self-esteem.
TLDR
The authors propose that the importance of self-esteem lies more in how people strive for it rather than whether it is high or low, and argue that in domains in which their self-worth is invested, people adopt the goal to validate their abilities and qualities, and hence theirself-worth. Expand
Contingencies of self-worth.
Research on self-esteem has focused almost exclusively on level of trait self-esteem to the neglect of other potentially more important aspects such as the contingencies on which self-esteem isExpand
Creating and undermining social support in communal relationships: the role of compassionate and self-image goals.
TLDR
Actors' average compassionate and self-image goals interacted to predict changes over 3 weeks in partners' reports of social support received from and given to actors; support that partners gave to actors, in turn, predicted changes in actors' perceived available support, indicating that people with compassionate goals create a supportive environment for themselves and others, but only if they do not have self-images. Expand
Race and self-esteem: meta-analyses comparing whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians and comment on Gray-Little and Hafdahl (2000).
TLDR
Black' self-esteem increased over time relative to Whites', with the Black advantage not appearing until the 1980s, and Black and HispanicSelf-esteem was higher in groups with high socioeconomic status, most consistent with a cultural interpretation of racial differences in self- esteem. Expand
Collective self-esteem and ingroup bias.
In addition to personal self-esteem, we propose that there is a second type of self-esteem, collective self-esteem. People who are high in trait collective self-esteem should be more likely to reactExpand
Collective Self-Esteem and Psychological Well-Being among White, Black, and Asian College Students
A total of 91 Black, 96 White, and 35 Asian college students completed the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES), as well as measures of psychological well-being (personal self-esteem, lifeExpand
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