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Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols
Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particularExpand
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THE CALIPSO MISSION: A Global 3D View of Aerosols and Clouds
Aerosols and clouds have important effects on Earth's climate through their effects on the radiation budget and the cycling of water between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. Limitations in ourExpand
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Effect of Ship-Stack Effluents on Cloud Reflectivity
Under stable meteorological conditions the effect of ship-stack exhaust on overlying clouds was detected in daytime satellite images as an enhancement in cloud reflectivity at 3.7 micrometers. TheExpand
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The Two-Stream Approximation in Radiative Transfer: Including the Angle of the Incident Radiation
Abstract The two-stream approximation has been applied to the equation of radiative transfer to obtain two–stream models for the transfer of radiation through an optically thin plane-parallelExpand
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Energy Balance Climate Models
An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiativeExpand
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Limits to the Aerosol Indirect Radiative Effect Derived from Observations of Ship Tracks
One-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations of the effects of ships on low-level clouds off the west coast of the United States are used to derive limits for theExpand
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Differences between seasonal and mean annual energy balance model calculations of climate and climate sensitivity
Abstract A simple Budyko-Sellers mean annual energy balance climate model with diffusive transport (North, 1975b) is extended to include a seasonal cycle. In the model the latitudinal distribution ofExpand
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The Effect of Tropospheric Aerosols on the Earth's Radiation Budget: A Parameterization for Climate Models
Abstract Guided by the results of doubling-adding solutions to the equation of radiative transfer, we develop a simple technique for incorporating in climate models the effect of the backgroundExpand
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REFLECTANCE AND ALBEDO, SURFACE
‘Albedo’ is Latin, meaning whiteness. The albedo of a surface is the fraction of the incident sunlight that the surface reflects. Radiation that is not reflected is absorbed by the surface. TheExpand
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Inference of Marine Stratus Cloud Optical Depths from Satellite Measurements: Does 1D Theory Apply?
Abstract The validity of plane-parallel (1D) radiative transfer theory for cloudy atmospheres is examined by directly comparing calculated and observed visible reflectances for one month of GlobalExpand
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