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Weighting against homoplasy improves phylogenetic analysis of morphological data sets
The problem of character weighting in cladistic analysis is revisited. The finding that, in large molecular data sets, removal of third positions (with more homoplasy) decreases the number of wellExpand
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The Phylogeny of the Extant Hexapod Orders
Morphological and molecular data are marshalled to address the question of hexapod ordinal relationships. The combination of 275 morphological variables, 1000 bases of the small subunit nuclear rDNAExpand
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Arguments for and against combined analysis of multiple data sets in phylogenetic inference are reviewed. Simultaneous analysis of combined data better maximizes cladistic parsimony than separateExpand
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Arguments for and against combined analysis of multiple data sets in phylogenetic inference and the mechanics of simultaneous analysis. Expand
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New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships
All Cretaceous records of ants are reviewed, and evidence originally given for their placement is evaluated. Cretaceous Formicoidea preserved in rocks lack preservation of critical ant synapomorphiesExpand
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Choosing Among Multiple Equally Parsimonious Cladograms
With the realization that multiple equally parsimonious cladograms might exist for a given data set (Mickevich, 1978), construction of classifications in such instances became a problem. ConsensusExpand
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Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation.
The Hymenoptera--ants, bees and wasps--represent one of the most successful but least understood insect radiations. We present the first comprehensive molecular study spanning the entire orderExpand
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Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera
The first comprehensive analysis of higher‐level phylogeny of the order Hymenoptera is presented. The analysis includes representatives of all extant superfamilies, scored for 392 morphologicalExpand
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Is Ellipura monophyletic? A combined analysis of basal hexapod relationships with emphasis on the origin of insects
Abstract Hexapoda includes 33 commonly recognized orders, most of them insects. Ongoing controversy concerns the grouping of Protura and Collembola as a taxon Ellipura, the monophyly of Diplura, aExpand
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