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Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences
Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and itsExpand
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Emerging marine diseases--climate links and anthropogenic factors.
Mass mortalities due to disease outbreaks have recently affected major taxa in the oceans. For closely monitored groups like corals and marine mammals, reports of the frequency of epidemics and theExpand
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Seagrasses and eutrophication
This review summarizes the historic, correlative field evidence and experimental research that implicate cultural eutrophication as a major cause of seagrass disappearance. We summarize theExpand
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Mixotrophy, a major mode of nutrition for harmful algal species in eutrophic waters
Historically most harmful algal species (HAS) have been thought to be strictly phototrophic. Mixotrophy, the use of phototrophy and heterotrophy in combination, has been emphasized as operativeExpand
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Impacts of Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations on Water Quality
Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growthExpand
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New 'phantom' dinoflagellate is the causative agent of major estuarine fish kills
A WORLDWIDE increase in toxic phytoplankton blooms over the past 20 years1,2 has coincided with increasing reports of fish diseases and deaths of unknown cause3. Among estuaries that have beenExpand
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Fish kills linked to a toxic ambush-predator dinoflagellate:distribution and environmental conditions
The toxic ambush-predator dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida gen. et sp. nov. has been implicated as a causative agent of major fish kills in estuarine ecosystems of the southeastern United States.Expand
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Pfiesteria piscicida and other Pfiesreria‐like dinoflagellates: Behavior, impacts, and environmental controls
Toxic Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates have been implicated as causative agents of major fish kills (affecting 10 3 -10 9 fish) in estuaries and coastal waters of the mid-Atlantic and southeasternExpand
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Development of Real-Time PCR Assays for Rapid Detection of Pfiesteria piscicida and Related Dinoflagellates
ABSTRACT Pfiesteria complex species are heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates that have been recognized as harmful algal bloom species associated with adverse fish and human health effectsExpand
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Insidious effects of a toxic estuarine dinoflagellate on fish survival and human health.
The estuarine dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida gen. et sp. nov. produces exotoxin(s) that can be absorbed from water or fine aerosols. Culture filtrate (0.22 microns porosity filters, > 250 toxicExpand
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