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Pharmacogenetic & Pharmacokinetic Biomarker for Efavirenz Based ARV and Rifampicin Based Anti-TB Drug Induced Liver Injury in TB-HIV Infected Patients
Background Implication of pharmacogenetic variations and efavirenz pharmacokinetics in concomitant efavirenz based antiviral therapy and anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI) has not beenExpand
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CYP2C19 Genotype Is a Major Factor Contributing to the Highly Variable Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole
In vitro data on the metabolism of the antifungal voriconazole suggest that its pharmacokinetics might be influenced by the activity of CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP3A. To elucidate the genetic influenceExpand
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Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and bioavailability of the triazole antifungal agent voriconazole in relation to CYP2C19 genotype.
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Pharmacokinetic variability of voriconazole is largely caused by CYP3A4- and CYP2C19-mediated metabolism. * Oral bioavailability of voriconazole has beenExpand
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Opposite effects of short‐term and long‐term St John's wort intake on voriconazole pharmacokinetics
Constituents of St John's wort (SJW) in vivo induce the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes 3A4, 2C9, and 2C19 but in vitro were shown to inhibit them. This study investigates both short‐ and long‐termExpand
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Importance of Ethnicity, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 Genotype for Efavirenz Pharmacokinetics and Treatment Outcomes: A Parallel-Group Prospective Cohort Study in Two Sub-Saharan Africa Populations
Objectives We evaluated the importance of ethnicity and pharmacogenetic variations in determining efavirenz pharmacokinetics, auto-induction and immunological outcomes in two African populations.Expand
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Ritonavir increases loperamide plasma concentrations without evidence for P‐glycoprotein involvement
The antidiarrheal drug loperamide is frequently used to treat ritonavir‐associated diarrhea in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. The absence of marked central opioid effects has beenExpand
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Long‐Term Efavirenz Autoinduction and Its Effect on Plasma Exposure in HIV Patients
We investigated the influence of gender and pharmacogenetic variations on long‐term efavirenz autoinduction and disposition among patients with HIV in Tanzania (N = 129). Plasma concentrations (at 16Expand
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High absolute bioavailability of methylene blue given as an aqueous oral formulation
PurposeMethylene blue (MB) has recently been reevaluated for malaria treatment. With the aim of excluding treatment failures due to low bioavailability, we have investigated the absoluteExpand
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Potent cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype–related interaction between voriconazole and the cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor ritonavir
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP3A4 are the major enzymes responsible for voriconazole elimination. Because the activity of CYP2C19 is under genetic control, the extent of inhibition with a CYP3A4Expand
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In Vitro Assessment of Methylene Blue on Chloroquine-Sensitive and -Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Strains Reveals Synergistic Action with Artemisinins
ABSTRACT Methylene blue (MB) represents a promising antimalarial drug candidate for combination therapies against drug-resistant parasite strains. To support and facilitate the application of MB inExpand
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