Multiple causes of variable tick burdens on small-mammal hosts.
It is found that tick burdens are a complex function of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including seasonality, and burdens on mice and chipmunks increased with densities of host-seeking ticks in a manner that suggests hosts become saturated.
INTRASPECIFIC RESERVOIRS: COMPLEX LIFE HISTORY AND THE PERSISTENCE OF A LETHAL RANAVIRUS
It is suggested that larval epidemics amplify virus prevalence and sublethally infected metamorphs (re)introduce the virus into uninfected larval populations, and intraspecific reservoirs may explain the persistence of parasites in and declines of small, isolated amphibian populations.
Pathogenicity and Transmission of Chytridiomycosis in Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum)
- E. Davidson, M. Parris, J. Collins, J. Longcore, A. Pessier, J. Brunner
- Environmental Science, BiologyCopeia
This is the first complete report of occurrence and pathology of chytridiomycosis in Salamanders in field-collected North American salamanders, and it is demonstrated that chyTridiomyCosis does not always lead to mortality.
Escape from the pond: stress and developmental responses to ranavirus infection in wood frog tadpoles
Insight is provided into how the balance of energy between development and immune function may contribute to patterns of ranavirus infection in pre-metamorphic amphibians.
Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease
- F. Keesing, J. Brunner, R. Ostfeld
- BiologyProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
- 22 November 2009
Results indicate that the abundance of tick vectors can be regulated by the identity of the hosts upon which these vectors feed, and shows that the loss of biodiversity may exacerbate disease risk by increasing both vector numbers and vector infection rates with a zoonotic pathogen.
Ranavirus Ecology and Evolution: From Epidemiology to Extinction
Given their broad host ranges, potential for high virulence, multiple routes of transmission, and frequent movement of amphibians, fish and reptiles in global trade, it appears that some ranaviruses have the potential to significantly impact host populations and even cause extinctions in the wild.
Dose and host characteristics influence virulence of ranavirus infections
It is suggested that dose of inoculum and host characteristics influence the establishment and early virus replication, and therefore the virulence of ranavirus infections.
Co-Infection of Blacklegged Ticks with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi Is Higher than Expected and Acquired from Small Mammal Hosts
A pattern of increased co-infection was observed in larval ticks that fed on small mammal hosts, but not on meso-mammal, sciurid, or avian hosts, and medical practitioners should be aware of the elevated risk of B. microti/B.
Transmission dynamics of the amphibian ranavirus Ambystoma tigrinum virus.
The data suggest that ATV is efficiently transmitted by direct interactions between live animals as well as by necrophagy and indirectly via water and fomites, and revealed an important temporal aspect of infectiousness: larval salamanders become infectious soon after exposure to ATV and their propensity to infect others increases with time.
Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans
- R. Ostfeld, J. Brunner
- Environmental SciencePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B…
- 5 April 2015
Both mechanistic and phenomenological models suggest dramatic range expansions of Ixodes ticks and tick-borne disease as the climate warms, however, the predicted distributions vary strongly with the models' assumptions, which are rarely tested against reasonable alternatives.