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The Escalation of Commitment to a Failing Course of Action: Toward Theoretical Progress
Escalating commitment (or escalation) refers to the tendency for decision makers to persist with failing courses of action. The present article first reviews evidence suggesting that escalation isExpand
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An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: interactive effects of outcomes and procedures.
The authors suggest that procedural and distributive factors interactively combine to influence individuals' reactions to their encounters with other people, groups, and organizations. Results fromExpand
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Regulatory Focus Theory: Implications for the Study of Emotions at Work
Previous theory and research have shown that people have two distinct self-regulatory foci. When promotion focused, people are motivated by growth and development needs in which they attempt to bringExpand
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Self-Esteem at Work: Research, Theory and Practice
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Taking a Multifoci Approach to the Study of Justice, Social Exchange, and Citizenship Behavior: The Target Similarity Model†
An emerging trend within the organizational justice, social exchange, and organizational citizenship behavior literatures is that employees maintain distinct perceptions about, and direct differentExpand
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Regulatory focus theory and the entrepreneurial process
The regulatory focus theory offers a well-developed framework to explain the motives, beliefs, and behaviors that dictate whether an entrepreneurial venture will succeed. The aim of the essay is toExpand
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Culture and procedural justice: The influence of power distance on reactions to voice.
Abstract A central premise of the procedural justice literature—based on studies conducted mainly in the United States—is that people react unfavorably when they have little voice in aExpand
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Scope of Justice in the Workplace: How Survivors React to Co‐Worker Layoffs
The studies described in this paper explored the effects of layoffs on the work behaviors and attitudes of the employees not laid off (the survivors). Survivors were hypothesized to become moreExpand
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Managing the Effects of Layoffs on Survivors
The productivity and morale of employees who survive layoffs are likely to have a major impact on the future performance of the corporation. The most important factors that affect survivors'Expand
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Survivors' Reactions to Layoffs: We Get By with a Little Help for Our Friends.
The authors thank Gerald R. Salancik and three anonymous ASQ reviewers for their helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. In addition, we thank the following individuals for theirExpand
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