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Epac is a Rap1 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor directly activated by cyclic AMP
Rap1 is a small, Ras-like GTPase that was first identified as a protein that could suppress the oncogenic transformation of cells by Ras. Rap1 is activated by several extracellular stimuli and may beExpand
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Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a protects quiescent cells from oxidative stress
Reactive oxygen species are required for cell proliferation but can also induce apoptosis. In proliferating cells this paradox is solved by the activation of protein kinase B (PKB; also known asExpand
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A novel Epac-specific cAMP analogue demonstrates independent regulation of Rap1 and ERK
cAMP is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes that were thought to be mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). However, cAMP also directly regulates Epac1 and Epac2, guanine nucleotide-exchangeExpand
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GEFs and GAPs: Critical Elements in the Control of Small G Proteins
Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) regulate the activity of small guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins to control cellular functions. In general, GEFsExpand
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AFX-like Forkhead transcription factors mediate cell-cycle regulation by Ras and PKB through p27kip1
The Forkhead transcription factors AFX, FKHR and FKHR-L1 are orthologues of DAF-16, a Forkhead factor that regulates longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we show that overexpression of theseExpand
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Epac: a new cAMP target and new avenues in cAMP research
  • J. Bos
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
  • 1 September 2003
Five years ago, Epac — a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras-like small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2 — was found to be a new target of cyclic AMP, which opened up new avenues for cAMP research.Expand
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FOXO transcription factor activation by oxidative stress mediated by the small GTPase Ral and JNK
Forkhead transcription factors of the FOXO class are negatively regulated by PKB/c‐Akt in response to insulin/IGF signalling, and are involved in regulating cell cycle progression and cell death.Expand
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Direct control of the Forkhead transcription factor AFX by protein kinase B
The phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase (PI(3)K) effector protein kinase B (refs 1, 2) regulates certain insulin-responsive genes,, but the transcription factors regulated by protein kinase B have yetExpand
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Epac proteins: multi-purpose cAMP targets.
  • J. Bos
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Trends in biochemical sciences
  • 1 December 2006
Epac1 and Epac2 are cAMP-dependent guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors for the small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, and are known to be important mediators of cAMP signaling. The recent determination of theExpand
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