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Uniform Inhibition of Dopamine Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area by Aversive Stimuli
TLDR
It is found that, in the ventral tegmental area of anesthetized rats, the population of presumed dopamine neurons that are excited by aversive stimuli is actually not dopaminergic, and the identified dopamine neurons were inhibited by the aversive stimulus.
Microcircuitry of the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia.
TLDR
The findings summarized in this commentary confirm and elaborate the models of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia and provide a morphological framework for future studies.
Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia
TLDR
It is concluded that the essential concept of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia remains intact but that the role of the indirect pathway is more complex than previously suggested and that neurons of the globus pallidus are in a position to control the activity of virtually the whole of the basalganglia.
Functional diversity and specificity of neostriatal interneurons
TLDR
The role of cholinergic interneurons is to modulate the sub- and supra-threshold responses of spiny neurons to cortical and/or thalamic excitation, particularly in reward-related activities.
Parkinsonian Beta Oscillations in the External Globus Pallidus and Their Relationship with Subthalamic Nucleus Activity
TLDR
It is proposed that GP neurons, by virtue of their spatiotemporal synchronization, widespread axon collaterals and feed-back/feed-forward mechanisms, are well placed to orchestrate and propagate exaggerated β oscillations throughout the entire basal ganglia in PD.
Stereological estimates of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field in the rat
TLDR
It is demonstrated that GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons represent large proportions of the neurons in what are traditionally considered as dopamine nuclei and that there are considerable heterogeneities in the proportions of cell types in the different dopaminergic midbrain regions.
Disrupted Dopamine Transmission and the Emergence of Exaggerated Beta Oscillations in Subthalamic Nucleus and Cerebral Cortex
TLDR
It is demonstrated that beta oscillations are inappropriately exaggerated, compared with controls, in a brain-state-dependent manner after chronic dopamine loss, and targeting the plastic processes underlying the delayed emergence of pathological Beta oscillations after continuing dopaminergic dysfunction may offer considerable therapeutic promise.
Dichotomous Organization of the External Globus Pallidus
TLDR
It is concluded that GPe exhibits several core components of a dichotomous organization as fundamental as that in striatum, and two populations of GPe neuron together orchestrate activities across all basal ganglia nuclei in a cell-type-specific manner.
Move to the rhythm: oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus–external globus pallidus network
TLDR
These recent findings provide further support for the view that the basal ganglia use both the pattern and the rate of neuronal activity to encode information.
Selective Innervation of Neostriatal Interneurons by a Subclass of Neuron in the Globus Pallidus of the Rat
TLDR
During periods of cortical activation, individual pallidal neurons may influence the activity of GABAergic interneurons of the neostriatum (which are involved in feed-forward inhibition and synchronization of principle neuron activity) while simultaneously patterning neuronal activity in basal ganglia downstream of theNeostriatal neurons.
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