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Quantity and quality of venom released by a spider (Cupiennius salei, Ctenidae).
TLDR
Which region of a gland (ampulla, extracellular and intracellular parts of the glandular sac) is involved in the changes of the venom quality is discussed, and a spider which modulates the quantity of venom injected into a prey also directly changes the venomquality.
How common is ecological speciation in plant-feeding insects? A 'Higher' Nematinae perspective
TLDR
The analysis indicates that the importance of niche shifts for the diversification of herbivorous insects is at present implicitly and explicitly overestimated.
Host plant derived feeding deterrence towards ants in the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae
TLDR
The presence of sequestered glucosinolates is already a sufficient defence towards predators such as ants, and their effectiveness is modulated by the host plant chemistry.
Sequestration of Host Plant Glucosinolates in the Defensive Hemolymph of the Sawfly Athalia rosae
TLDR
Analysis of larvae of the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae revealed that larvae incorporate and concentrate the plant's characteristic glucosinolates from their hosts, and found that the sequestered phytochemicals were transferred through the pupal stage.
Sequestration ofVeratrum alkaloids by specialistRhadinoceraea nodicornis konow (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) and its ecoethological implications
TLDR
Bioassays and field observations indicate that the pathway of ceveratrum alkaloids in R. nodicornis larvae is fourfold: direct sequestration, metabolism followed by sequestration and excretion of intact alkaloid, and degradation.
Invertebrate and avian predators as drivers of chemical defensive strategies in tenthredinid sawflies
TLDR
It is concluded that the evolution of chemically-based defenses in tenthredinids may have been driven by invertebrate as much as by avian predation, and further studies on (prey) insect groups should include visual signals and other traits, to better interpret their relative significance and to refine the understanding of insect chemical defenses.
Volatiles emitted by apple fruitlets infested by larvae of the European apple sawfly
TLDR
The possible ecological significance of the increased emission of terpenoids by infested apples is discussed with reference to a parasitic wasp that attacks the sawfly larvae.
Gustatory perception and metabolic utilization of sugars by Myrmica rubra ant workers
TLDR
The suitability of various nectar and honeydew sugars as a food source for the polyphagous ant species M. rubra was studied and it was suggested that the workers possess invertase and maltase and to a lesser degree also galactosidase.
Why does the larval integument of some sawfly species disrupt so easily? The harmful hemolymph hypothesis
TLDR
It is suggested that invertebrates such as ants were more important than vertebrates in the evolution of easy bleeding, and hemolymph deterrence to be often due to sequestration of plant secondary metabolites.
Defence effectiveness of easy bleeding sawfly larvae towards invertebrate and avian predators
TLDR
It is likely that easy bleeding is a defence strategy directed primarily towards foraging insects with biting-chewing mandibles and that it is much less active towards predatory insects with piercing-sucking mandibles as well as birds.
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