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Differential signal transduction by five splice variants of the PACAP receptor
TLDR
A new expression cloning strategy, based on the induction of a reporter gene by cyclic AMP, is used to isolate a complementary DNA encoding the type-I PACAP receptor, suggesting a novel mechanism for fine tuning of signal transduction.
Endogenous cannabinoids mediate long-term synaptic depression in the nucleus accumbens
TLDR
It is shown that stimulation of prelimbic cortex afferents at naturally occurring frequencies causes a long-term depression of nucleus accumbens glutamatergic synapses mediated by eCB release and presynaptic CB1 receptors.
Molecular tinkering of G protein‐coupled receptors: an evolutionary success
TLDR
Indirect studies have led to a useful model of a common ‘central core’, composed of seven transmembrane helical domains, and its structural modifications during activation of G protein‐coupled receptors.
NMDA-dependent superoxide production and neurotoxicity
TLDR
It is reported that O·- 2 is produced upon NMDA receptor stimulation in cultured cerebellar granule cells and the nitrone DMPO (5,5-dimethyl pyrroline 1-oxide), used as a spin trap, is more efficient than the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-N G -nitroarginine, in reducing NMDA-induced neuronal death in these cultures.
Angiogenesis is associated with blood-brain barrier permeability in temporal lobe epilepsy.
TLDR
It is suggested that the persistent leakage of serum IgG in the interstitial space and their uptake by neurons may participate in hypoperfusion and in neuronal dysfunction occurring in TLE.
“Inflammatory” Cytokines
TLDR
The evidence strongly suggests that these cytokines perform neural functions in normal brain, and it is proposed that they should be thought of as neuromodulators in addition to inflammatory mediators.
Localization and Mechanisms of Action of Cannabinoid Receptors at the Glutamatergic Synapses of the Mouse Nucleus Accumbens
TLDR
Electrophysiological techniques and immunohistochemistry suggest that CB1 receptors are located on the cortical afferents to the nucleus and can reduce glutamate synaptic transmission within the NAc by modulating K+ channels activity.
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP-38) Protects Cerebellar Granule Neurons from Apoptosis by Activating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAP Kinase) Pathway
TLDR
It is demonstrated that PACAP-38 increased survival of cerebellar neurons in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the extent of apoptosis estimated by DNA fragmentation, and PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK (MAP kinase kinase), completely abolished the antiapoptotic effect of PACAP -38, suggesting that MAP kinase pathway activation is necessary for PACAP.
Functional coupling between ryanodine receptors and L-type calcium channels in neurons
TLDR
A tight functional coupling between ryanodine receptors and L-type Ca2+ channel in neurons is demonstrated and is demonstrated to be a novel mechanism for Ca2-channel modulation in neurons.
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