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Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve
Chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus induced region-dependent alterations in GABAB1b mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice, highlighting the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut–brain axis.
Mast cells
There is good evidence for mast cell heterogeneity both in the rat model and in the human, and the recent observations of cytokine production by mast cells opens up an entirely new set of questions in mast cell biology.
Reduced anxiety‐like behavior and central neurochemical change in germ‐free mice
This work has shown that the presence of gut microbiota regulates the set point for hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and the role intestinal microbiota may play in communication between these two systems is increasing.
The probiotic Bifidobacteria infantis: An assessment of potential antidepressant properties in the rat.
The attenuation of pro-inflammatory immune responses, and the elevation of the serotonergic precursor, tryptophan by bifidobacteria treatment, provides encouraging evidence in support of the proposition that this probiotic may possess antidepressant properties.
Mucosal immunity.
Mast cells are closely apposed to nerves in the human gastrointestinal mucosa.
Mast cell/nerve associations have been recorded in several publications; however, the human gastrointestinal tract has received little attention, and mucosal samples from small bowel, appendix, and large bowel were studied to provide a microanatomic basis for potential communication between nerves and mast cells in the humanintestinal mucosa.
Live Lactobacillus reuteri Is Essential for the Inhibitory Effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Interleukin-8 Expression
The conclusion is that L. reuteri has potent direct anti-inflammatory activity on human epithelial cells, which is likely to be related to the activity of ingested probiotics.
Bronchus‐ and nasal‐associated lymphoid tissues
The BALT can be thought of as functionally analogous to mucosal lymphoid aggregates in the intestine and is deemed a member of the common mucosal immunologic system.
Oral treatment with live Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits the allergic airway response in mice.
Oral treatment with live L. reuteri can attenuate major characteristics of an asthmatic response in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that oral treatment with specific live probiotic strains may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of allergicAirway disease.
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the chicken. I. Morphology, ontogeny, and some functional characteristics of Peyer's patches.
The knowledge of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in the bird is extended to include the bursa of Fabricius, CT, PP, and aggregates in the urodeum and proctodeum, and raises issues about the roles of chicken PP that may aid the understanding of the functions of mammalian GALT.