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Age-Dependent Diarrhea Induced by a Rotaviral Nonstructural Glycoprotein
Electrophysiologic data from intestinal mucosa showed that the NSP4 114–135 peptide potentiates chloride secretion by a calcium-dependent signaling pathway, and induced diarrhea in young (6 to 10 days old) CD1 mice.
Expression of Norwalk virus capsid protein in transgenic tobacco and potato and its oral immunogenicity in mice.
The results indicate the potential usefulness of plants for production and delivery of edible vaccines, an appropriate technology for developing countries where vaccines are urgently needed.
Norwalk Virus Open Reading Frame 3 Encodes a Minor Structural Protein
The characterization of the NV ORF 3 protein expressed in a cell-free translation system and in insect cells and its association with recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) and NV virions indicate that the ORF3 protein is a minor structural protein of the virion.
A general model for the transmembrane proteins of HIV and other retroviruses.
A hypothetical model of the transmembrane (TM) protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is proposed that is derived from the known structure of the influenza TM protein HA2. This model is
Mutations in Rotavirus Nonstructural Glycoprotein NSP4 Are Associated with Altered Virus Virulence
Results from site-directed mutational analyses showed that mutated OSU-v NSP4 with deletion or substitutions in the region of aa 131 to 140 lost its ability to increase intracellular calcium levels and to induce diarrhea in neonatal mice, confirming the importance of amino acid changes in the alteration of virus virulence.
Oral Immunization with Recombinant Norwalk Virus-Like Particles Induces a Systemic and Mucosal Immune Response in Mice
Nonreplicating rNV VLPs are immunogenic when administered orally in the absence of any delivery system or mucosal adjuvant, and they are a potential mucosal vaccine for NV infections.
The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 mobilizes intracellular calcium in human intestinal cells by stimulating phospholipase C-mediated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production.
Results suggest that NSP4 mobilizes [Ca2+]i in human intestinal cells through receptor-mediated phospholipase C activation and IP3 production in an IP3-specific radioreceptor assay.
Attachment and entry of recombinant Norwalk virus capsids to cultured human and animal cell lines
Binding and internalization of VLPs to cultured human and animal cell lines were studied in an attempt to identify potentially susceptible cell lines for virus propagation in vitro and to determine if early events in the replication cycle were responsible for the narrow host range and restriction of virus growth in cell culture.
Specific proteolytic cleavage of recombinant Norwalk virus capsid protein
Data show that the 30K protein in stool is produced by specific cleavage of the NV capsid protein in vivo, similar to that of the 32K cleavage product of rNV capsidprotein in vitro.
Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles given orally to volunteers: phase I study.
Orally administered rNV VLPs are safe and immunogenic in healthy adults when administered without adjuvant and are useful to test the mucosal delivery of immunogens.