• Publications
  • Influence
TARGET ARTICLE: Immersive Virtual Environment Technology as a Methodological Tool for Social Psychology
Historically, at least 3 methodological problems have dogged experimental social psychology: the experimental control-mundane realism trade-off, lack of replication, and unrepresentative sampling. WeExpand
  • 836
  • 65
Equilibrium Theory Revisited: Mutual Gaze and Personal Space in Virtual Environments
During the last half of the twentieth century, psychologists and anthropologists have studied proxemics, or spacing behavior, among people in many contexts. As we enter the twenty-first century,Expand
  • 363
  • 38
Interpersonal Distance in Immersive Virtual Environments
Digital immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) enables behavioral scientists to conduct ecologically realistic experiments with near-perfect experimental control. The authors employed IVETExpand
  • 523
  • 37
How Immersive Is Enough? A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Immersive Technology on User Presence
The concept of presence, or “being there” is a frequently emphasized factor in immersive mediated environments. It is often assumed that greater levels of immersive quality elicit higher levels ofExpand
  • 328
  • 28
The Unbearable Likeness of Being Digital: The Persistence of Nonverbal Social Norms in Online Virtual Environments
Every day, millions of users interact in real-time via avatars in online environments, such as massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). These online environments could potentiallyExpand
  • 587
  • 23
The Use of Immersive Virtual Reality in the Learning Sciences: Digital Transformations of Teachers, Students, and Social Context
This article illustrates the utility of using virtual environments to transform social interaction via behavior and context, with the goal of improving learning in digital environments. We firstExpand
  • 271
  • 21
Implications of Transformed Digital Self-Representation on Online and Offline Behavior
Virtual environments allow individuals to dramatically alter their self-representation. More important, studies have shown that people infer their expected behaviors and attitudes from observingExpand
  • 268
  • 21
Virtual Interpersonal Touch: Expressing and Recognizing Emotions Through Haptic Devices
ABSTRACT This article examines the phenomenon of Virtual Interpersonal Touch (VIT), people touching one another via force-feedback haptic devices. As collaborative virtual environments becomeExpand
  • 175
  • 21
The Independent and Interactive Effects of Embodied-Agent Appearance and Behavior on Self-Report, Cognitive, and Behavioral Markers of Copresence in Immersive Virtual Environments
The current study examined how assessments of copresence in an immersive virtual environment are influenced by variations in how much an embodied agent resembles a human being in appearance andExpand
  • 257
  • 20
Real-time classification of evoked emotions using facial feature tracking and physiological responses
We present automated, real-time models built with machine learning algorithms which use videotapes of subjects' faces in conjunction with physiological measurements to predict rated emotion (trainedExpand
  • 255
  • 15