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Effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle function before and after fatigue.
It is concluded that caffeine has a direct effect on skeletal muscle contractile properties both before and after fatigue as demonstrated by electrical stimulation.
Caffeine metabolism in the newborn
The data indicate that the 4‐day plasma t½ of caffeine characteristic of the newborn depends in large part on slow urinary excretion of unchanged drug since there is little or no metabolism.
Early ibuprofen administration to prevent patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborn infants.
Administration of three doses of ibuprofen within 3 hours after birth in preterm neonates reduced the incidence of PDA without causing notable early adverse drug reactions in this phase I trial.
Caffeine impact on neonatal morbidities
Improved later outcomes at 18 to 22 months include clinically significant decreases in cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, and severe retinopathy of prematurity in those babies who received caffeine during the neonatal period compared to non-caffeine treated placebo neonates.
Pharmacokinetic profile of caffeine in the premature newborn infant with apnea.
A loading dose of 10mg/kg intravenously or orally followed by a daily maintenance dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day administered as a single dose for the treatment and prevention of neonatal apnea is suggested for premature newborn infants with apnea.
Summary Proceedings From the Neonatal Pain-Control Group
The neonatal pain-control group, as part of the Newborn Drug Development Initiative (NDDI) Workshop I, addressed concerns about management of pain associated with invasive procedures, provision of sedation and analgesia during mechanical ventilation, and mitigation of pain and stress responses during and after surgery in the newborn infant.
A meta-analysis of ibuprofen versus indomethacin for closure of patent ductus arteriosus
ibuprofen and indomethacin have similar efficacy in patent ductus arteriosus closure, but preterm infants treated with ib uprofen experience lower serum creatinine values, higher urine output, and less undesirable decreased organ blood flow and vasoconstrictive adverse effects.
A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Oral Zinc in the Treatment of Acute and Persistent Diarrhea
Zinc supplementation reduces the duration and severity of acute and persistent diarrhea; however, the mechanisms by which zinc exerts its antidiarrheal effect have not been fully elucidated.
Maturation of caffeine elimination in infancy.
The developmental changes in caffeine elimination were studied in infants and data provide some indication of the age in infancy when the low rates of caffeine elimination in the neonate increase to the adult rate.
Pharmacokinetic aspects of theophylline in premature newborns.
To characterize further the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in premature infants, its concentraion in blood was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography after intravenous infusion given to