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Kinetics of Baseball Pitching with Implications About Injury Mechanisms
TLDR
Elbow and shoulder kinetics for 26 highly skilled, healthy adult pitchers were calculated using high-speed motion analysis and found that tension in the biceps tendon, due to muscle contraction for both elbow flexion torque and shoulder compressive force, may tear the antero superior labrum.
Current Concepts in the Rehabilitation of the Overhead Throwing Athlete
TLDR
The typical musculoskeletal profile of the overhead thrower and various rehabilitation programs for specific injuries are discussed and structured, multiphase approach with emphasis on controlling inflammation, restoring muscle balance, improving soft tissue flexibility, enhancing proprioception and neuromuscular control is followed.
Kinematic and kinetic comparison of baseball pitching among various levels of development.
TLDR
This study supports the philosophy that a child should be taught 'proper' pitching mechanics for use throughout a career, and appears that the natural progression for successful pitching is to learn proper mechanics as early as possible, and build strength as the body matures.
Biomechanics of the knee during closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises.
TLDR
This study quantified knee forces and muscle activity in CKCE and OKCE to help in choosing appropriate exercises for rehabilitation and training.
Osseous Adaptation and Range of Motion at the Glenohumeral Joint in Professional Baseball Pitchers *
TLDR
A comparison of the dominant shoulders of the two groups indicated that both external rotation at 90° and humeral head retroversion were significantly greater in the throwing group than in the nonthrowing group.
Biomechanics of pitching with emphasis upon shoulder kinematics.
TLDR
In rehabilitation of injured throwers, there is a need to appreciate the highly dynamic nature of this skill and to attempt to simulate these dynamic motions and loads as part of the final phase of treatment before the athlete returns to competition.
Effect of Pitch Type, Pitch Count, and Pitching Mechanics on Risk of Elbow and Shoulder Pain in Youth Baseball Pitchers
TLDR
Pitchers in this age group should be cautioned about throwing breaking pitches (curveballs and sliders) because of the increased risk of elbow and shoulder pain and limitations on pitches thrown in a game and in a season can also reduce the risk of pain.
Biomechanics of Overhand Throwing with Implications for Injuries
TLDR
Proper throwing mechanics may enable an athlete to achieve maximum performance with minimum chance of injury by utilising a kinetic chain to generate and transfer energy from the larger body parts to the smaller, more injury-prone upper extremity.
Longitudinal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers.
TLDR
Arm complaints are common, with nearly half of the subjects reporting pain, and the factors associated with elbow and shoulder pain were different, suggesting differing etiologies.
Operative Treatment of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Elbow in Athletes
TLDR
Reconstruction of the ulnar collateral ligament, with transposition and stabilization of the Ulnar nerve and appropriate rehabilitation, was found to be effective in correcting medial instability of the elbow and allowed most athletes to return to previous levels of play in less than 1 year.
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