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The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope.
- C. R. Snyder, C. Harris, P. Harney
- PsychologyJournal of personality and social psychology
- 1 April 1991
An individual-differences measure is developed and construct validational support is provided in regard to predicted goal-setting behaviors; moreover, the hypothesized goal appraisal processes that accompany the various levels of hope are corroborated.
The role of prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in task switching.
- M. Sohn, S. Ursu, J. Anderson, V. Stenger, C. Carter
- Psychology, BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 21 November 2000
Higher activation increases in inferior lateral prefrontal cortex and superior posterior parietal cortex were associated with foreknowledge than with no foreknowledge, suggesting that endogenous preparation and exogenous adjustment for a task switch may be independent processes involving different brain areas.
Serial modules in parallel: the psychological refractory period and perfect time-sharing.
An integrated theory of cognition, perception, and action that consists of the ACT-R production system and a set of perceptual-motor modules and results from three PRP-like experiments indicate that cognitive processing for the 2 tasks need not overlap.
Automaticity and the ACT* theory.
- J. Anderson
- PhilosophyThe American journal of psychology
An explanation of automaticity within the framework of the Adaptive Control of Thought (ACT*) production system theory is presented and it is shown that there is no automaticity mechanism per se in ACT*.
Task preparation and task repetition: two-component model of task switching.
An ACT-R (adaptive control of thought-rational) model was proposed, accommodating both preparation and priming effect with 2 independent processes: conflict resolution among productions and decay of chunk activation, which suggested that the switch cost with foreknowledge may consist of both inadequate preparation and repetition benefit but the switchcost with no fore knowledge may reflect repetition benefit only.
Retrieval of information from long-term memory.
- J. Anderson
- Psychology, Computer ScienceScience
- 1 April 1983
Information is represented in long-term memory as a network of associations among concepts. Information is retrieved by spreading activation from concepts in working memory through the network…
The development of self-recognition: a review.
- J. Anderson
- PsychologyDevelopmental psychobiology
Studying infants' responses to their reflections in mirrors shows that contingency of movement is a salient cue which is learned early, and that attempts to engage in contingent play and to imitate representations of oneself are useful measures of early self- recognition.
Can squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) learn self-control? A study using food array selection tests and reverse-reward contingency.
This study demonstrates one form of self-control in a New World primate and shows the reverse-reward procedure to be a potentially valuable method for assessing species and individual differences in self- control and numerosity-related abilities.
The role of examples and rules in the acquisition of a cognitive skill.
- J. Anderson, J. M. Fincham, S. Douglass
- PsychologyJournal of experimental psychology. Learning…
- 1 July 1997
It is argued that skill acquisition involves development of a complex set of strategies based on use of rules and retrieval of examples and four overlapping stages of skill acquisition are described.
Acquisition of procedural skills from examples.
Initially, there was some transfer from practicing the procedure to recalling the examples, but this diminished over days, and Ss developed a directional asymmetry such that they were slower to calculate the input from the output than the output from the input.