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Macrophage activation and polarization: nomenclature and experimental guidelines.
Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. TheExpand
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Local Macrophage Proliferation, Rather than Recruitment from the Blood, Is a Signature of TH2 Inflammation
Proliferation in situ, rather than immune cell recruitment, drives macrophage expansion in response to parasitic infection. A defining feature of inflammation is the accumulation of innate immuneExpand
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Tissue-resident macrophages
Tissue-resident macrophages are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. These range from dedicated homeostatic functions, such asExpand
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Helminth parasites – masters of regulation
Summary:  Immune regulation by parasites is a global concept that includes suppression, diversion, and conversion of the host immune response to the benefit of the pathogen. While many microparasitesExpand
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EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF PLANT ADAPTATION TO SERPENTINE SOILS
■ Abstract Plant adaptation to serpentine soil has been a topic of study for many decades, yet investigation of the genetic component of this adaptation has only recently begun. We review theExpand
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IL-4 directly signals tissue-resident macrophages to proliferate beyond homeostatic levels controlled by CSF-1
IL-4 and CSF-1 both contribute to macrophage proliferation during nematode infection, but IL-4 permits increased tissue macrophage density without the coincident monocyte infiltration associated withExpand
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MODEL SELECTION IN PHYLOGENETICS
! Abstract Investigation into model selection has a long history in the statistical literature. As model-based approaches begin dominating systematic biology, increased attention has focused on howExpand
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Chitinase and Fizz Family Members Are a Generalized Feature of Nematode Infection with Selective Upregulation of Ym1 and Fizz1 by Antigen-Presenting Cells
ABSTRACT Ym1 and Fizz1 are secreted proteins that have been identified in a variety of Th2-mediated inflammatory settings. We originally found Ym1 and Fizz1 as highly expressed macrophage genes in aExpand
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Evolutionary Causes and Consequences of Immunopathology
▪ Abstract Immune responses can cause severe disease, despite the role immunity plays in defending against parasitism. Indeed, immunopathology is a remarkably common cause of disease and has strongExpand
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Type 2 immunity and wound healing: evolutionary refinement of adaptive immunity by helminths
Helminth-induced type 2 immune responses, which are characterized by the T helper 2 cell-associated cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, mediate host protection through enhanced tissue repair,Expand
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