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Chemical warfare in termites.
TLDR
This text aims to fill the gap of the past 25 years and overview all of the relevant primary sources about the chemistry of termite defense along with related biological aspects, such as the anatomy of defensive glands and their functional mechanisms, alarm communication, and the evolutionary significance of these defensive elements.
The evolutionary history of termites as inferred from 66 mitochondrial genomes.
TLDR
The inference of ancestral geographic ranges shows that the Termitidae, which includes more than 75% of extant termite species, most likely originated in Africa or Asia, and acquired their pantropical distribution after a series of dispersal and subsequent diversification events.
Digestive α‐amylases of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella– adaptation to alkaline environment and plant inhibitors
TLDR
It is concluded that lepidopteran α‐amylases are evolutionarily adapted in terms of structure and expression dynamics for effective functioning in the digestive system.
Oceanic dispersal, vicariance and human introduction shaped the modern distribution of the termites Reticulitermes, Heterotermes and Coptotermes
TLDR
These wood-eating termites appear to have acquired their modern worldwide distribution through multiple dispersal processes, with oceanic dispersal and human introduction favoured by the ecological traits of nesting in wood and producing replacement reproductives.
Structure and function of defensive glands in soldiers of Glossotermes oculatus (Isoptera: Serritermitidae)
TLDR
The structure and function of defensive glands in Glossotermes oculatus soldiers aiming to understand their use in combat are investigated and it is hypothesized that this self-sacrifice is an efficient way of blocking a gallery under attack.
The frontal gland in workers of Neotropical soldierless termites
TLDR
The first observation of a frontal gland in workers of several Neotropical and one African species of Apicotermitinae is reported, which is well-developed, functional and consists of class 1 secretory cells.
Evolution of Termite Symbiosis Informed by Transcriptome-Based Phylogenies
TLDR
This key finding indicates that comb building is a derived trait within Termitidae and that the creation of a comb-like "external rumen" involving bacteria or fungi may not have driven the loss of protozoa from ancestral termitids, as previously hypothesized.
The soldierless Apicotermitinae: insights into a poorly known and ecologically dominant tropical taxon
TLDR
The main objective of this paper is to increase the awareness and understanding of this dominant soil arthropod through a comprehensive review of their lifestyle and ecological importance.
Niche differentiation among neotropical soldierless soil-feeding termites revealed by stable isotope ratios
TLDR
Feeding niche differentiation can account for the high species richness and diversity of soldierless soil-feeding termites in neotropical rainforests and suggest that some species are more likely to shift along this gradient than others, in response to overall habitat conditions or to the presence of competitors.
Mutual Use of Trail-Following Chemical Cues by a Termite Host and Its Inquiline
TLDR
It is determined that the trail-following pheromone of C. cyphergaster is made of neocembrene and (3Z,6Z,8E)-dodeca-3,6,8-trien-1-ol, and that I. microcerus shows the converse behaviour.
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