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The ligand for osteoprotegerin has been identified, and it is a TNF-related cytokine that replaces the requirement for stromal cells, vitamin D3, and glucocorticoids in the coculture model of in vitro osteoclastogenesis. OPG ligand (OPGL) binds to a unique hematopoeitic progenitor cell that is committed to the osteoclast lineage and stimulates the rapid(More)
Heterostructures based on layering of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride represent a new class of electronic devices. Realizing this potential, however, depends critically on the ability to make high-quality electrical contact. Here, we report a contact geometry in which we metalize only the 1D edge of a 2D graphene(More)
T-cell activation requires co-stimulation through receptors such as CD28 and antigen-specific signalling through the T-cell antigen receptor. Here we describe a new murine costimulatory receptor-ligand pair. The receptor, which is related to CD28 and is the homologue of the human protein ICOS, is expressed on activated T cells and resting memory T cells.(More)
Soiled bedding from male mice induced c-fos mRNA expression in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and main olfactory bulb (MOB) of female mice. The increase observed in the AOB, but not the MOB, was dependent on the presence of the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Male urine alone also increased c-fos mRNA expression in the AOB. The urine-derived compounds(More)
The Tribolium castaneum homeotic gene maxillopedia (mxp) is the ortholog of Drosophila proboscipedia (pb). Here we describe and classify available mxp alleles. Larvae lacking all mxp function die soon after hatching, exhibiting strong transformations of maxillary and labial palps to legs. Hypomorphic mxp alleles produce less severe transformations to leg.(More)
We search for the technicolor process pp-->rhoT/omegaT-->WpiT in events containing one electron and two jets, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 390 pb(-1), recorded by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. Technicolor predicts that technipions pi(T) decay dominantly into bb, bc, or bc, depending on their charge. In these events b(More)
Sublethal preconditioning ischemia protects neurons from lethal ischemia, and activation of ERK is associated with this protection. However, sublethal ischemia and reperfusion also results in rapid inactivation of ERK, which contributes to the dual-phase activation profile of ERK. In the present study, we observed sublethal ischemia-induced rapid(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have been implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, recent screenings for GBA mutations in PD subjects from different ethnic populations have yielded contradictory results. METHODS We performed a case-control study to look for a possible association between PD(More)
In situ hybridization and Northern blot assay were used to evaluate the effects of exogenous AVP(4-8) on the transcription of mRNAs for nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) in the adult rat brain. NGF and BDNF expression was found to be significantly enhanced by AVP(4-8) administration in the cerebral(More)
OBJECTIVE Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene at the PARK14 locus have been reported in complicated parkinsonism. To assess the prevalence of and phenotypes associated with PLA2G6 gene mutations, we screened PLA2G6 mutations in a cohort of patients with autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism (AREP). METHODS We selected 12 families with AREP in which the(More)