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Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors(More)
BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common rheumatic diseases, are characterized by irreversible degeneration of the joint tissues. There are several factors involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases including pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and adhesion molecules. OBJECTIVE Up to now, the relationship(More)
A large body of evidence from clinical and experimental studies is aiding to understand the close relationships between obesity and rheumatic diseases. For instance, it is generally accepted that obesity contributes to the development of osteoarthritis by increasing mechanical load of the joints, at least in weight bearing joints. However, besides(More)
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is a secreted glycoprotein that belongs to a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules in circulation. LCN2 has been recently characterized as an adipose-derived cytokine. This adipokine is believed to bind small substances, such as steroids and(More)
Progranulin (PGRN) is a recently identified adipokine that is supposed to have anti-inflammatory actions. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL1β) stimulates several mediators of cartilage degradation. Toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) can bind to various damage-associated molecular patterns, leading to inflammatory condition. So far, no data exist of(More)
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus(More)
Osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) is a promising marker of bone turnover useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of high turnover osteoporosis. Conflicting results have been reported about its physiological variations according to sex, age, and menopause. Several, but not all, authors have found increased levels in males, with aging, and after menopause. We(More)
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a principal component of the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), is one of the most ancient known foods and has long been associated with health benefits. Many phenolic compounds extracted from Olea europea L. have attracted attention since their discovery. Among these phenolic constituents, oleocanthal has recently emerged as a(More)
Recent studies confer to IL-36α pro-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about the expression and function of IL-36α in cartilage. This study sought to analyze the expression of IL-36α in healthy and OA cartilage. Next, we determined the effects of recombinant IL-36α on catabolism and inflammation in chondrocytes. For completeness, part of the(More)
Inflammation is a complex mechanism of cell/tissue responses to injuries triggered by multiple causes, including trauma, pathogens or autoimmune abnormal responses. In the last years, a novel line of thought is emerging by giving a more holistic vision of chronic arthropathies through a recently identified group of molecules, called adipokines. Actually,(More)