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Fast dynamic response is an outstanding feature of the direct torque controlled (DTC) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) systems. However, the two-value hysteresis controllers and the 60/spl deg/ region based position signal employed to select the proper space voltage vector in the conventional DTC system result in large torque and flux linkage(More)
 A genetic model is proposed for the analysis of embryo and endosperm effects as well as GE interaction effects. An investigation of three malting quality traits in grains of seven parents and their F2s was undertaken in a half-diallel cross of barley (Hordeum distichum L.) over 2 years. The results indicated that the malt Kolbach index (KI), alpha-amylase(More)
Different avenues are being explored to realize non-volatile high density magnetoelectronic memory. Our work has focused on the applicability of the current perpendicular-to-plane configuration of magnetic multilayers showing giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR). Successful realization relies on overcoming several technological hurdles that include(More)
The fabrication and testing of annular shaped memory elements at the deep submicron scale is presented using combined electron beam and optical lithographic techniques. The device structures were designed for four-point probe measurements of a single ring, two rings in series, or four rings in series. The fabricated rings had a 600 nm outer diameters, 200(More)
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