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A simple, rapid method for bacterial lysis and direct extraction of DNA from soils with minimal shearing was developed to address the risk of chimera formation from small template DNA during subsequent PCR. The method was based on lysis with a high-salt extraction buffer (1.5 M NaCl) and extended heating (2 to 3 h) of the soil suspension in the presence of(More)
Traditional and molecular typing schemes for the characterization of pathogenic microorganisms are poorly portable because they index variation that is difficult to compare among laboratories. To overcome these problems, we propose multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which exploits the unambiguous nature and electronic portability of nucleotide sequence data(More)
CD44 is a multifunctional protein involved in cell adhesion and signaling. The role of CD44 in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression is controversial with studies showing both tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects. Most of these studies have used bulk-cultured PCa cells or PCa tissues to carry out correlative or overexpression(More)
In tomato, the Pto kinase confers resistance to bacterial speck disease by recognizing the expression of a corresponding avirulence gene, avrPto, in the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified three genes, Pti4, Pti5 and Pti6, that encode proteins that physically interact with the Pto kinase. Pti4/5/6(More)
The tomato Pti4 gene encodes a transcription factor that was identified on the basis of its specific interaction with the product of the Pto disease resistance gene in a yeast two-hybrid system. We show here that the Pti4 protein specifically binds the GCC-box cis element, which is present in the promoter region of many pathogenesis-related (PR) genes.(More)
The emergence of disease caused by penicillin-resistant and multidrug-resistant pneumococci has become a global concern, necessitating the identification of the epidemiological spread of such strains. The Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network was established in 1997 under the auspices of the International Union of Microbiological Societies with the(More)
Recovery of mRNA from environmental samples for measurement of in situ metabolic activities is a significant challenge. A robust, simple, rapid, and effective method was developed for simultaneous recovery of both RNA and DNA from soils of diverse composition by adapting our previous grinding-based cell lysis method (Zhou et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol.(More)
Genetic heterogeneity of denitrifying bacteria in sediment samples from Puget Sound and two sites on the Washington continental margin was studied by PCR approaches amplifying nirK and nirS genes. These structurally different but functionally equivalent single-copy genes coding for nitrite reductases, a key enzyme of the denitrification process, were used(More)
The concept that androgens are atretogenic, derived from murine ovary studies, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that hyperandrogenic women have more developing follicles than normal-cycling women. To evaluate androgen's effects on primate follicular growth and survival, normal-cycling rhesus monkeys were treated with placebo-, testosterone-(T), or(More)
Steroid receptors and coactivator proteins are thought to stimulate gene expression by facilitating the assembly of basal transcription factors into a stable preinitiation complex. What is not clear, however, is how these transcription factors gain access to transcriptionally repressed chromatin to modulate the transactivation of specific gene networks in(More)