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We examine the evolution of the cross-sectional distribution of capital structure and find that capital structure is remarkably stable over time; firms with high (low) leverage remain relatively high (low) levered for over 20 years. Additionally, this relative ranking is observed for both public and private firms, and is largely unaffected by the process of(More)
We consider a " managerial optimal " framework for top executive compensation, where top management sets their own compensation subject to limited entrench-ment, instead of the conventional setting where such compensation is set by a board that maximizes firm value. Top management would like to pay themselves as much as possible, but are constrained by the(More)
Of 63 sexual assault victims who were a mean 7.9 years postevent, almost two thirds (60%, n = 38) demonstrated some degree of depression. Over half (56%, n = 35) the sample also reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Three factors had a significant positive association with higher levels of depression: nondisclosure of the assault to significant(More)
*We thank Emmanuel Morales-Camargo for his excellent research assistance. We also thank Yigal Arnon, the CEO and the employees of Bank Leumi of Israel and the management and the employees of the Monetary Department of the Bank of Israel for all their help in gathering the data from the professional participants. We have benefited from comments Abstract An(More)
In capital intensive industries, firms face complicated multi-stage financing, investment, and production decisions under the watchful eye of existing and potential industry rivals. We consider a two-stage simplification of this environment. In the first stage, an incumbent firm has two " first-mover " advantages: its debt financing and its capacity(More)
A financial institution that finances and monitors firms learns private information about these firms. When the institution seeks funds to meet its own liquidity needs, it faces adverse selection (" liquidity ") costs that increase with the risk of its claims on these firms. The institution can reduce its liquidity costs by holding debt rather than equity.(More)